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Hey everybody! Just joined and love the forum. Can anyone tell me what they think of the "Speed Count" by Frank Scoblete? I've tried it and it ...


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How Blackjack Card Counting Works
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In the Knockout Card Counting (KO Count) system, as explained in the book Knock Out Blackjack, all card values are the same as in the Hi Low system, except ...


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How Does Counting Cards in Blackjack Work? | Mental Floss
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The Easy OPP Count: A New and Easier Approach to Card Counting The Easy OPP Count: A New Approach to Card Counting CARD COUNTING SYSTEMS: CONTENTS By Carlos Zilzer By Rich Victor By Arnold Snyder By Arnold Snyder By Arnold Snyder For click the following article vision-impaired By Arnold Snyder Another system for the vision-impaired By Arnold Snyder By ETFan COMPUTER POWER TO THE PEOPLE!!
Carlos Zilzer has developed a unique method of counting cards that is even simpler than the Red Seven Count.
Because there was no commercially available blackjack simulation software on the market that could handle the new method Carlos had devised for counting cards, he wrote his own program and begun testing his system on a simulator of his own device.
When he discovered that PowerSim was producing results comparable to his own software program, he submitted an article to Blackjack Forum describing his system and the simulation results.
The OPP Count is such a radical simplification of traditional card counting methods that I wanted to see more data before publishing the system.
I asked Carlos to run more extensive tests not only of his system as described in the initial article that he submitted, but of numerous variations of the system, along with simulations of the Hi-Lo Count in the same games for comparison with his method.
I also requested that he set counters on his simulations so that I could see that cards were being dealt accurately and randomly.
Carlos spent weeks running the simulation tests I requested and sending me spreadsheets with printouts continue reading his results.
He then compiled some of the most important data from these tests into a new Blackjack Forum article describing his system, its development, and the results of his simulations.
A shoe rich in high cards tens and aces is favorable to the player, while a shoe rich in low cards 2s through 6s is favorable to the house.
All modern card counting systems that I am aware of assign a negative value to the high cards and a positive value to low cards.
The main difference between the systems is the value assigned to the different cards.
As an example, the popular Hi-Lo click to see more assigns the value -1 to the tens and aces and the value +1 to the low cards, 2s through 6s.
As the cards come out of the shoe, players add the values of those cards to obtain what is called a running count, which can be a positive or negative number depending on the proportion of low to high cards dealt from the shoe.
With balanced counts, before making a betting or playing decision, the player divides the running count by the number of decks that have not yet been dealt to obtain what is called the true count.
Counting this way is not easy, as the player needs to pay attention to the cards while they are being dealt and then must make mental calculations.
There are easier counting systems that eliminate the calculation of the true count by assigning positive values to more cards than those with negative values.
For example, the Red Seven Count developed by Arnold Snyder has the same card values as the balanced Hi-Lo Count, but assigns a value of +1 to the red sevens, creating an imbalance of +2 per deck.
The goal of a good card-counting system is to be as simple to use as possible without losing the power to accurately determine when the player has the advantage.
The OPP count does exactly that: It is a very simple method to learn and use that will give you results comparable to the Hi Lo Count.
The main difference between this new counting system and all of the traditional ones is that it uses new factors to determine the composition of the remaining decks.
It is the easiest way to count cards with a high degree of betting accuracy.
Part 2: The Mathematical Coincidence In a deck of 52 cards there are 20 high cards tens, faces and aces.
There are also 20 low cards 2s through 6s.
It has also been determined with computer simulations that each player or dealer hand will receive an average number of cards very close to 2.
The actual number determined after the simulation of billions of hands using different simulators is 2.
Now we have something very interesting: Since the average blackjack hand contains 2.
With the help of computer simulation see my results belowit has been shown that any player or dealer hand will actually receive an average of about 1.
In the table below, you will find the results of a 100 million hand simulation using PowerSim for a 6-deck game.
OPP stands for One Per Person.
As I will explain, the number of low or high cards per hand will give a very good indication of the composition of the remaining decks.
Part 3: Developing and Testing the Easy OPP Card Counting System I first tested counting the number of high cards that were dealt per round and comparing this number with the total number of hands dealt per round.
Imagine a blackjack table with three players and the dealer dealing the first round of the shoe.
These are the first round hands: Player 1 Ace, 10 — Blackjack Player 2 10, 2, 7 — 19 Player 3 8, 6, 10 — bust Dealer 10, 3, 6 — 19 As you can see there were 4 hands played and 5 high cards were dealt an ace and 10 to Player 1, a ten to Player 2, a ten to Player 3, and a ten to the Dealer.
The next round the hands dealt were: Player 1 10, 5, 5 — 20 Player 2 Ace, 2, 5 — 18 Player 3 8, 6, 7— 21 Dealer 9, 5, 3 — 17 At this time there were again 4 hands played, but only 2 high cards were dealt.
This process continues until the end of the shoe, adding the running count of each round to the cumulative running count of the prior rounds.
None of the commercially available blackjack simulation programs could be adapted read more test this new counting system, so it was necessary to develop a simulator for this job specifically.
The first simulations I ran, using my own simulation program, were performed in the beginning of 2005 using a program specially written for the tests.
It was slow but returned the data I was looking for.
With the new powerful and fast open source PowerSim simulator, available on this Web site, simulations that used to take me about two hours are now performed in eight minutes.
The first step was to verify that the count was producing logical results.
We would expect the count to present a normal distribution of positive and negative counts with the majority of counts around zero, and a reasonable spread of counts on both the positive and negative side.
This is a graph of what the simulation showed: The chart shows the PowerSim results for 100 million rounds of a player using basic strategy in a six-deck game.
The running counts are on the horizontal axis, and the percentage blackjack delivery occurrence of these counts is on the vertical.
About 80% of the hands were played with running counts between -6 and +6 and approximately 14% of the hands were played at a zero running count.
But the graph shows that the count is negative more times than positive.
This is not what we would expect for a traditional balanced counting system, which would tend to produce a more symmetrical pattern of counts on either side of zero.
The chart above shows that the relation between the running count and the advantage is almost linear up to counts of +12, but that the relation becomes erratic at counts higher than +12.
I tried several simulations with PowerSim and always https://yournaughtystory.com/blackjack/no-even-money-blackjack-rules.html inconsistent results starting at counts of +12 and above.
I next wanted to see what the overall player advantage would be using this counting system with a bet spread.
I ran a 100 million-hand simulation using the following bet ramp: 1 unit up to count +1 and ramping up 2, 4, and 16 units respectively at counts +2, +3 and +4.
The following results were obtained using the PowerSim simulator: Advantage with 1-16 spread 0.
Before dropping the idea I decided to reverse the OPP counting method.
Instead of subtracting the number of high cards dealt per round from the number of hands in play, I decided to test the system subtracting the number of hands in play from the number of low cards dealt per round.
These are the first round hands: Player 1 Ace, 10 — Blackjack Player 2 10, 2, 7 — 19 Player 3 8, 6, 10 — bust Dealer 7, 7, 5 — 19 As you can see there were 4 hands played and only 3 low cards were dealt a 2 to Player 2, a 6 to Player 3, and a 5 to the Dealer.
The next round the hands dealt were: Player 1 10, 5, 5 — 20 Player 2 Ace, 2, 4, 10 — 17 Player 3 8, 6, 7 — 21 Dealer 10, 4, 3 — 17 At this time there were also 4 hands played but 7 low cards were dealt.
This process continues until the end of the shoe, adding the running count of each round to the cumulative running count of the prior rounds.
When I reversed the OPP counting method in this way, comparing the number of low cards dealt to the number of hands in play, the PowerSim simulations gave the following result for the count distribution: Again, the running counts are on the horizontal axis, and the percentage of occurrence of these counts is on the vertical.
We again have a normal distribution of the counts with more than 80% of the counts occurring in the range from -6 to +6.
But this time the count distribution is more positive than negative.
As for the correlation blackjack be dealer a the count to the player advantage, I got the following results: This graph shows that there is a much more linear relation between the running count and the player expectation.
The unpredictable results obtained at high counts when using the OPP method to compare high cards to hands dealt do not occur when we compare low cards to hands dealt.
The results shown in the graph are again from a simulation of 100 million hands played using basic strategy with standard US rules in a six-deck game with 75% penetration.
With this OPP counting method, the player starts to have an edge over the house when the running count reaches +5.
I then ran a simulation applying a bet ramp of 1 unit up to a count of +5, and ramping up to 2, 4, and 16 units at counts of +6, +7, and +8 respectively.
The following results compare the OPP with the Hi Lo Count with a similar 1-to-16 bet ramp.
Both systems were tested using basic strategy only.
OPP Hi Lo Player blackjack card counting speed count with bet ramp 0.
A new and very simple count system has been born: the OPP Count system.
The player counts only the number of low cards dealt per round and compares this with the number of hands played in the round.
Mathematical Considerations Many players may wonder why counting the high cards versus hands dealt was less efficient than counting the low cards versus hands dealt.
That is because the OPP method does not really have us comparing low cards with high cards as with a click here card counting system.
Instead, we are comparing low cards or high cards with something that has a frequency distribution of its own—that is, the number of cards per hand.
We know that the overall average number of cards per hand is 2.
It is logical that the number of cards per hand will be higher when the count is rising because more cards will be required to complete the hands when extra low cards are being dealt.
Consider what happens when counting high cards per hand if we have a hand with 3 or 4 low cards, then hit with a high card and bust.
It is less probable to have a hand with 3 or 4 high cards in it, because such a hand would require either a soft or stiff hand to start with that we hit with multiple aces.
Multiple-high-card hands would be rare, while multiple-low-card blackjack card counting speed count would occur more frequently, and produce a more accurate measure of advantage.
Analyses of Two-deck and Eight-deck Blackjack Games In order to configure a system usable in most situations, I performed simulations with PowerSim to determine the effectiveness of the OPP count in games with two decks and eight decks, again comparing the betting gain with the gain from Hi-Lo.
Two Decks Applying a bet ramp with a spread of 1 unit up to a count of +1 and ramping up 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 units respectively at counts of +2, +3, +4, +5 and +6, the following results were obtained using the PowerSim simulator again, with both systems playing basic strategy only : Two deck performance OPP Hi Lo Player edge with bet ramp 0.
Eight Decks Applying a bet ramp with a spread of 1 unit up to count +7 and ramping up 2, 4 and 16 units respectively at counts +8, +9 and +10, the following results were obtained using the PowerSim simulator again with both the OPP and Hi-Lo playing basic strategy only : Eight deck performance OPP Hi Lo Player edge with bet ramp 0.
For a 2-deck game the index is +5, and for an 8-deck game the index is +14.
The OPP Count, however, does not correlate well with the insurance effects of removal since ten-valued cards are not actually counted.
I suspect that OPP running count indices for some of the more important strategy decisions, however, especially standing on 15 or 16 v.
Ten, will be found by Carlos and others through continued simulation tests, as the counting method will probably correlate very well with these decisions.
The use of basic strategy will provide the player with the minimum advantage for the house.
The counting system will turn that small house advantage into a small advantage for the player.
For example: Ace, Ace, 2, 2, 10, 3 has an OPP value of +2 2, 3, 5, 3, 6 has an OPP value of + 4 7, 7, 7 has an OPP value of -1 Ace, 10 has an OPP value of -1 6, 7, 8 has an OPP value of 0 9, 8 has an OPP value of -1 10, 6, Ace has an OPP value of 0 Counting the Cards It is very easy to mentally count up or down in positive numbers.
Considering that 80% of the hands will be in the range of -6 click at this page +6, I recommend starting the running count for the OPP system at +6 at the beginning of a shoe.
In this way, the count will very seldom reach negative numbers.
Wait for the dealer to deal the first two cards to each player, as well as the two dealer cards upcard and hole card, if dealt.
You can speak, make jokes, and drink your soft drink.
If someone gets a blackjack and the dealer pays him and places his cards in the discard try, subtract one from your running count.
Then check the hand of each player as they are making their playing decisions.
Beginning of the shoe: Running count +6 Player 4 Ace, 10 blackjack Running count +5 dealer took the cards to the discard try Player 1 Ace, Ace, 2, 2, 10, 3 Running count +7 Player 2 2, 3, 5, 3, 6 Running count +11 Player 3 7, 7, 7 Running count +10 Player 5 6, 7, 8 Running count +10 Player 6 9, 8 Running count +9 Dealer 10, 6, Ace Running count +9 If any player happens to split hands, they should be considered new hands and the value of the original hand should be ignored.
The best way to practice the system is to play blackjack at home.
Use a deck and start dealing cards to three imaginary players and to yourself as the dealer.
Practice the count as indicated above while you play each hand.
In this way you will see and practice counting all possible hands that can appear in real life games.
You will learn to count spilt hands and to count very fast while the dealer is collecting the cards after a dealer blackjack.
Before the hands are dealt, I immediately subtract the number of hands in play.
Then, as each player plays his hand, I simply add the total number of low cards in it.
One of the best features of the OPP Count is that it makes back-counting and table-hopping a breeze.
You can approach a table and quickly scan for the total number of low cards on the layout, then subtract the number of hands that were in play after you get your low-card count.
When you feel proficient counting the cards at home, you can practice in an Internet casino playing for fun money at a table with multiple players.
You will only use these games as a practice method.
After you have practiced enough at home, go to a casino and start counting while other people play.
When you feel comfortable sit at a table and start playing using the OPP count.
You will see that you will get used to the system very fast, and that it really does not require 100% concentration except when each player is making his playing decisions.
Betting to Win Once you have learned this very simple counting method the only thing you need to do is wait for the right moment to increase your bet.
If you have started at a running count of +6, wait until the count reaches +12 for a six-deck game, +14 for an eight-deck game, or +8 for a two-deck game.
At these counts the advantage has shifted to blackjack card counting speed count players.
The higher juegos blackjack en linea count value, the higher the player edge, and the bigger your bet should be.
Only about 18% of your hands will be played at counts over the pivot in shoe games, and the player advantage will not occur in all shoes.
Also remember that there is no warranty that you will win most of your hands when the count reaches the pivot.
Remember that there will be many times when you will lose high bet hands.
The following table shows the recommended bet ramps for games blackjack mobile cheats myvegas two, six, and eight decks, to get the best advantage for the player at the source risk.
The first three columns are the running counts where you raise your bet, according to the number of decks in the game.
This blackjack card counting speed count save you a lot of money.
Players in the US or elsewhere must always bear in mind the heat factor.
His two-deck betting strategy would likely get you booted out fairly quickly in many US casinos.
For playing shoe games in the US, a back-counting strategy would likely be more advisable and more profitable than a 1-16 spread.
To back-count is to watch the cards being dealt on a table without playing, ready to jump in and play when the count goes up and you will be starting play with an advantage.
Table-hopping is an extension of back-counting that pros use in big casinos, which tend to have multiple pits with many blackjack tables.
Table-hoppers leave the game when the count goes negative and start play at another table.
They refuse to play when the casino has a big edge.
With the OPP Count, if we start our count at +6 at the beginning of the shoe, the insurance index is +18 for the six-deck game, +20 for the eight-deck game, and +11 for the two-deck game.
This means visit web page if you are playing in a six-deck game and the running count reaches +18 or more, and the dealer has an Ace up, you should place the insurance bet, because you will win the bet more than 35 % of the time.
Simulations with PowerSim have confirmed these index numbers.
Final Thoughts on the Easy OPP Card Counting System OPP is a very simple system to learn and to use.
Practice at home, go to a casino and stand near a table and practice the count while others play.
I know people who have mastered the system in less than a weekend and now they are part of the select group of players who are making money playing blackjack.
Anything can happen in the short run.
No one can ever guarantee that you will win even when you are playing with an advantage.
Back to the Back to © 2004-2005 Blackjack Forum Online, All Rights Reserved Summary: The Easy OPP Card Counting System provides an innovative and radically easier technique for counting cards.

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... actually in the gambler's favor. That game is blackjack. You just have to learn how to count cards.. BY William Herkewitz. June 3, 2014. ThinkStock. Speed. Normal. Quality. And it's these odds that make blackjack ripe for card counting.


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Watch Blackjack Expert Explains How Card Counting Works | WIRED Video | CNE
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The Easy OPP Count: A New and Easier Approach to Card Counting
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The premise behind the Speed Count is that the average hand in blackjack consists of 2.7 cards. Also, on average, one of those 2.7 cards is a small card (2, 3, 4, 5, or 6). Most card counting systems involve adding and subtracting. At the very least, you have cards worth +1 and cards worth -1.


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KO Count - How to Count Cards Using the Knock Out System
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The Ace/Five Count
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The Easy OPP Count: A New and Easier Approach to Card Counting The Easy OPP Count: A New Approach to Card Counting CARD COUNTING SYSTEMS: CONTENTS By Carlos Zilzer By Rich Victor By Arnold Snyder By Arnold Snyder By Arnold Snyder For the vision-impaired By Arnold Snyder Another system for the vision-impaired By Arnold Snyder By ETFan COMPUTER POWER TO THE PEOPLE!!
Carlos Zilzer has developed a unique method of counting cards that is even simpler than the Red Seven Count.
Because there was no commercially available blackjack simulation software on the market that could handle the new method Carlos had devised for counting cards, he wrote his own program and begun testing his system on a simulator of his own device.
When he discovered that PowerSim was producing results comparable to his own software program, he submitted an article to Blackjack Forum describing his system and the simulation results.
The OPP Count is such a radical simplification of traditional card counting methods that I wanted to see more data before publishing the system.
I asked Carlos to run more extensive tests not only of his system as described in the initial article that he submitted, but of numerous variations of the system, along with simulations of the Hi-Lo Count in the same games for comparison with his method.
I also requested that he set counters on his simulations so that I could see that cards were being dealt accurately and randomly.
Carlos spent weeks running the simulation tests I requested and sending me spreadsheets with printouts of his results.
He then compiled some of the most important data from these tests into a new Blackjack Forum article describing his system, its development, and the results of his simulations.
A shoe rich in high cards tens and aces is favorable to the player, while a shoe rich in low cards 2s through 6s is favorable to the house.
All modern card counting systems that I am aware of assign a negative value to the high cards and a positive value to low cards.
The main difference between the systems is the value assigned to the different cards.
As an example, the popular Hi-Lo system assigns the value -1 to the tens and aces and the value +1 to the low cards, 2s through 6s.
As the cards come out of the shoe, players add the values of those cards to obtain what is called a running count, which can be a positive or negative number depending on the proportion of low to high cards dealt from the shoe.
With balanced counts, before making a betting or playing decision, the player divides the running count by the number of decks that have not yet been dealt to obtain what is called the true count.
Counting this way is not easy, as the player needs to pay attention to the cards while they are being dealt and then must make mental calculations.
There are easier counting systems that eliminate the calculation of the true count by assigning positive values to more cards than those with negative values.
For example, the Red Seven Count developed by Arnold Snyder has the same card values as the balanced Hi-Lo Count, but assigns a value of +1 to the red sevens, creating an imbalance of +2 per deck.
The goal of a good card-counting system is to be as simple to use as possible without losing the power to accurately determine when the player has the advantage.
The OPP count does exactly that: It is a very simple method to learn and use that will give you results comparable to the Hi Lo Count.
The main difference between this new counting system and all of the traditional ones is that it uses new factors to determine the composition of the remaining decks.
It is the easiest way to count cards with a high degree of betting accuracy.
Part 2: The Mathematical Coincidence In a deck of 52 cards there are 20 high cards tens, faces and aces.
There are also 20 low cards 2s through 6s.
It has also been determined with computer simulations that each player or dealer hand will receive an average number of cards very close to 2.
The actual number determined after blackjack card counting speed count simulation of billions of hands using different simulators is 2.
Now we have something very interesting: Since the average blackjack hand contains 2.
With the help of computer simulation see my results belowit has been shown that any player or dealer hand will actually receive an average of about 1.
In the table below, you will find the results of a 100 million hand simulation using PowerSim for a 6-deck game.
OPP stands for One Per Person.
As I will explain, the number of low or high cards per hand will give a very good indication of the composition of the remaining decks.
Part 3: Developing and Testing the Easy OPP Card Counting System I first tested counting the number of high cards that were dealt per round and comparing this number with the total number of hands dealt per round.
Imagine a blackjack table with three players and the dealer dealing the first round of the shoe.
These are the first round hands: Player 1 Ace, 10 — Blackjack Player 2 10, 2, 7 — 19 Player 3 blackjack card counting speed count, 6, 10 — bust Dealer 10, 3, 6 — 19 As you can see there were 4 hands played and 5 high cards were dealt an ace and 10 to Player myvegas blackjack mobile cheats, a ten to Player 2, a ten to Player 3, and a ten to the Dealer.
The next round the hands dealt were: Player 1 10, 5, 5 — 20 Player 2 Ace, 2, 5 — 18 Player 3 8, 6, 7— 21 Dealer 9, 5, 3 — 17 At this time there were again 4 hands played, but only 2 high cards were dealt.
This process continues until the end of the shoe, adding the running count of each round to the cumulative running count of the prior rounds.
None of the commercially available blackjack simulation programs could be adapted to test this new counting system, so it was necessary to develop a simulator for this job specifically.
The first simulations I ran, using my own simulation program, were performed in the beginning of 2005 using a program 155 knife blackjack written for the tests.
It was slow but returned the data I was looking for.
With the new powerful and fast open source PowerSim simulator, available on this Web site, simulations that used to take me about two hours are now performed in eight minutes.
The first step was to verify that the count was producing logical results.
We would expect the count to present a normal distribution of positive and negative counts with the majority of counts around zero, and a reasonable spread of counts on both the positive and negative side.
This is a graph of what the simulation showed: The chart shows the PowerSim results for 100 million rounds of a player using basic strategy in a six-deck game.
The running counts are on the horizontal axis, and the percentage of occurrence of these counts is on the vertical.
About 80% of the hands were played with running counts between -6 and +6 and approximately 14% of the hands were played at a zero running count.
But the graph shows that the count is negative more times than positive.
This is not what we would expect for a traditional balanced counting system, which would tend to produce a more symmetrical pattern of counts on either side of zero.
The chart above shows that the relation between the running count and the advantage is almost linear up to counts of +12, but that the relation becomes erratic at counts higher than +12.
I tried several simulations with PowerSim and always got inconsistent results starting at counts of +12 and above.
I next wanted to see what the overall player advantage would be using this counting system with a bet spread.
I ran a 100 million-hand simulation using the click bet ramp: 1 unit up to count blackjack card counting speed count and ramping up 2, 4, and 16 units respectively at counts +2, +3 blackjack card counting speed count +4.
The following results were obtained using the PowerSim simulator: Advantage with 1-16 spread 0.
Before dropping the idea I decided to reverse the OPP counting method.
Instead of subtracting the number of high cards dealt per round from the number of hands in play, I decided to test the system subtracting the number of hands in play from the number of low cards dealt per round.
These are the first round hands: Player 1 Ace, 10 — Blackjack Player 2 10, 2, 7 — 19 Player 3 8, 6, 10 — bust Dealer 7, 7, 5 — 19 As you can see there were 4 hands played and only 3 low cards were dealt a 2 to Player 2, a 6 to Player 3, and a 5 to the Dealer.
The online blackjack tools round the hands dealt were: Player 1 10, 5, 5 — 20 Player 2 Ace, 2, 4, 10 — 17 Player 3 8, 6, 7 — 21 Dealer 10, 4, 3 — 17 At this time there were also 4 hands played but 7 low cards were dealt.
This process continues until the end of the shoe, adding the running count of each round to the cumulative running count of the prior rounds.
When I reversed the OPP counting method in this way, comparing the number of low cards dealt to the number of hands in play, the PowerSim simulations gave the following result for the count distribution: Again, the running counts are on the horizontal axis, and the percentage of occurrence of these counts is on the vertical.
We again have a normal distribution of the counts with more than 80% of the counts occurring in the range from -6 to +6.
But this time the count distribution is more positive than negative.
As for the correlation of the count to the player advantage, I got the following results: This graph shows that there is a much more linear relation between the running count and the player expectation.
The unpredictable results obtained at high counts when using the OPP method to compare high cards to hands dealt do not occur when we compare low cards to hands dealt.
The results shown in the graph are again from a simulation of 100 million hands played using basic strategy with standard US rules in a six-deck game with 75% penetration.
With this OPP counting method, the player starts to have an edge over the house when the running count reaches +5.
I visit web page ran a simulation applying a bet ramp of 1 unit up to a count of +5, and ramping up to 2, 4, and 16 units at counts of +6, +7, and +8 respectively.
The following results compare the OPP with the Hi Lo Count with a similar 1-to-16 bet ramp.
Both systems were tested using basic strategy only.
OPP Hi Lo Player edge with bet ramp 0.
A new and very simple count system has been born: the OPP Count system.
The player counts only the number of low cards dealt per round and compares this with the number of hands played in the round.
Mathematical Considerations Many players may wonder why counting the high cards versus hands dealt was less efficient than counting the low for multiplayer blackjack game very versus hands dealt.
That is because the OPP method does not really have us comparing low cards with high cards as with a traditional card counting system.
Instead, we are comparing low cards or high cards with something that has a frequency distribution of its own—that is, the number of cards per hand.
We know that the overall average number of cards per hand is 2.
It is logical that the number of cards per hand will be higher when the count is rising because more cards will be required to complete the hands when extra low cards are being dealt.
Consider what happens when counting high cards per hand if we have a hand with 3 or 4 low cards, then hit with a high card and bust.
It is less probable to have a hand with 3 visit web page 4 high cards in it, because such a hand would require either a soft or stiff hand to start with that we hit with multiple aces.
Analyses of Two-deck and Eight-deck Blackjack Games In order to configure a system usable in most situations, I performed simulations with PowerSim to determine the effectiveness of the OPP count in games with two decks and eight decks, again comparing the betting gain with the gain from Hi-Lo.
Two Decks Applying a bet ramp with a spread of 1 unit up to a count of +1 and ramping up 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 units respectively at counts of +2, +3, +4, +5 and +6, the following results were obtained using the PowerSim simulator again, with both systems playing basic strategy only : Two deck performance OPP Hi Lo Player edge with bet ramp 0.
Eight Decks Applying a bet ramp with a spread of 1 unit up to count +7 and ramping up 2, 4 and 16 units respectively at counts +8, +9 and +10, the following results were obtained using the PowerSim simulator again with both the OPP and Hi-Lo playing basic strategy only : Eight deck performance OPP Hi Lo Player edge with bet ramp 0.
For a 2-deck game the index is +5, and for an 8-deck game the index is +14.
The OPP Count, however, does not correlate well with the insurance effects of removal since ten-valued cards are not actually counted.
I suspect that OPP running count indices for some of the more important strategy decisions, however, especially standing on 15 or 16 v.
Ten, will be found by Carlos and others through continued simulation tests, as the counting method will probably correlate very well with these decisions.
The use of basic strategy will provide the player with the minimum advantage for the house.
The counting system will turn that small house advantage into a small advantage for the player.
For example: Ace, Ace, 2, 2, 10, 3 has an OPP value of +2 2, 3, 5, 3, 6 has an OPP value of + 4 7, 7, 7 has an OPP value of -1 Ace, 10 has an OPP value of -1 6, 7, 8 has an OPP value of 0 9, 8 has an OPP value of -1 10, 6, Ace has an OPP value of 0 Counting the Cards It is very easy to mentally count up or down in positive numbers.
Considering that 80% of the hands will be in the range of -6 to +6, I recommend starting the running count for the OPP system at +6 at the beginning of a shoe.
In this way, the count will very seldom reach negative numbers.
Wait for the dealer to very blackjack pizza prank call theme the first two cards to each player, as well as the two dealer cards upcard and hole card, if dealt.
You can speak, make jokes, and drink your soft drink.
If someone gets a blackjack and the dealer pays him and places his cards in the discard try, subtract one from your running count.
Then check the hand of each player as they are making their playing decisions.
Beginning of the shoe: Running count +6 Player 4 Ace, 10 blackjack Running count +5 dealer took the cards to the discard try Player 1 Ace, Ace, 2, 2, 10, 3 Running count +7 Player 2 2, 3, 5, 3, 6 Running count +11 Player 3 7, 7, 7 Running count +10 Player 5 6, 7, 8 Running count +10 Player 6 9, 8 Running count +9 Dealer 10, 6, Ace Running count +9 If any player happens to split hands, they should be considered new hands and the value of the original hand should be ignored.
The best way to practice the system is to play blackjack at home.
Use a deck and start dealing cards to three imaginary players and to yourself as the dealer.
Practice the count as indicated above while you play each hand.
In this way you will see and practice counting all possible hands that can appear in real life games.
You will learn to count spilt hands and to count very fast while the dealer is collecting the cards after a dealer blackjack.
Before the hands are dealt, I immediately subtract the number of hands in play.
Then, as each player plays his hand, I simply add the total number of low cards in it.
One of the best features of the OPP Count is that it makes back-counting and table-hopping a breeze.
You can approach a table and quickly scan for the total number of low cards on the layout, then subtract the number of hands that were in play after you get your low-card count.
When you feel proficient counting the cards at home, you can practice in an Internet casino playing for fun money at a table with multiple players.
You will only use these games as a practice method.
After you have practiced enough at home, go to a casino and start counting while other people play.
When you feel comfortable sit at a table and start playing using the OPP count.
You will see that you will get used to the system very fast, and that it really does not require 100% concentration except when each player is making his playing decisions.
Betting to Win Once you have learned this very simple counting method the only thing you need to do is wait for the right moment to increase your bet.
If you have started at a running count of +6, wait until the count reaches +12 for a six-deck game, +14 for an eight-deck game, or +8 for a two-deck game.
At these counts the advantage has shifted to the players.
The higher the count value, the higher the player edge, and the bigger your bet should be.
Only about 18% of your hands will be played at counts over the pivot in shoe games, and the player advantage will not occur in all shoes.
Also remember that there is no warranty that you will win most of your hands when the count reaches the pivot.
Remember that there will be many times when you will lose high bet hands.
The following table shows the recommended bet ramps for games with two, six, and eight decks, to get the best advantage for the player at the blackjack card counting speed count risk.
The first three columns are the running counts where you raise your bet, according to the number of decks in the game.
This will save you a lot of money.
Players in the US or elsewhere must always bear in mind the heat factor.
His two-deck betting strategy would likely get you booted out fairly quickly in many US casinos.
For playing shoe games in the US, a back-counting strategy would likely be more advisable and more profitable than a 1-16 spread.
To back-count is to watch the cards being dealt on a table without playing, ready to jump in and play when the count goes up and you will be starting play with an advantage.
Table-hopping is an extension of back-counting that pros use in big casinos, which tend to have multiple pits with many blackjack tables.
Table-hoppers leave the game when the count goes negative and start play at another table.
They refuse to play when the casino has a big edge.
With the OPP Count, if we start our count at +6 at the beginning of the shoe, the insurance index is +18 for the six-deck game, +20 for the eight-deck game, and +11 for the two-deck game.
This means that if you are playing in a six-deck game and the running count reaches +18 or more, and the dealer has an Ace up, you should place the insurance bet, because you will win the bet more than 35 % of the time.
Simulations with PowerSim have confirmed these index numbers.
Final Thoughts on the Easy OPP Card Counting System OPP is a very simple system to learn and to use.
Practice at home, go to a casino and stand near a table and practice the count while others play.
I know people who have mastered the system in less than a weekend and now they are part absolutely 21 blackjack gratis online Thanks! the select group of players who are making money playing blackjack.
Anything can happen in the short run.
No one can ever guarantee that you will win even when you are playing with an advantage.
Back to the Back to © 2004-2005 Blackjack Forum Online, All Rights Reserved Summary: The Easy OPP Card Counting System provides an innovative and radically easier technique for counting cards.

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A blackjack game in progress Card counting is a casino strategy used primarily in the family of casino games to determine whether the next hand is likely to give a probable advantage to the player or to the dealer.
Card counters are a class ofwho attempt to decrease the inherent house edge by keeping a running tally of all blackjack card counting speed count and low valued cards seen by the player.
Card counting allows players to bet more with less risk when the count gives an advantage as well as minimize losses during an unfavorable count.
Card counting also provides the ability to alter playing decisions based on the composition of remaining cards.
Card counting, high online blackjack casino stakes referred to asoften refers to obtaining a sufficient count on the number, distribution and high-card location of cards in such as or to optimize the winning of tricks.
The most common variations of card counting in blackjack are based on statistical evidence that high cards especially aces and 10's, and to a lesser extent 9's benefit the player more than the dealer, while the low cards, 3's, 4's, 6's, and especially 5's, and to a lesser extent 2's and 7's help the dealer while hurting the player.
The dealer cannot double.
Thus a dealer holding 12-16 will bust every time if the next card drawn is a 10, making this card essential to track when card counting.
Contrary to the popular myth, card counters do not need unusual mental abilities to count cards, because they are not tracking and memorizing specific cards.
Instead, card counters assign a point score to each card they see that estimates the value of that card, and then they track the sum of these values — a process called keeping a blackjack chart decks count.
Systems Basic card counting assigns a positive, negative, or zero value to each card value available.
When a card of that value is dealt, the count is adjusted by that card's counting value.
Low cards increase the count as they increase the percentage of high cards in the remaining set of cards, while high cards decrease it for the opposite reason.
For instance, the Hi-Lo system subtracts one for each dealt 10, Jack, Queen, King or Ace, and be a dealer one for any value 2-6.
Values 7-9 are assigned a value of zero and therefore do not affect the count.
The goal of a card counting system is to assign point values that roughly correlate to a card's Effect of Removal EOR.
The EOR is the estimated effect of removing a given card from play, and the resulting impact on the house advantage.
The player may gauge the effect of removal for all cards dealt, and assess the current house advantage of a game based on the remaining cards.
As larger ratios between point values are used to create better correlation to actual EOR with the goal of increasing the efficiency of a system, such systems use more different numbers and are broken into classes depending on such as level 1, level 2, level 3, and so on, with regard to the ratio between the highest and lowest assigned point values.
The High-Low system is considered a level-one count, because the running count never increases or decreases by more than a single, predetermined value.
A multilevel count, such as Zen Count, Wong Halves or Hi-Opt II, makes finer distinctions between card values to gain greater play accuracy.
Advanced players might additionally maintain a side count separate count of specific cards, such as a side count Aces, to deal with situations where the best count for betting accuracy differs from the best count for playing more info />The disadvantage of higher-level counts is that keeping track of more information may detract from the ability to play quickly and accurately.
Some card counters reglas del juego blackjack earn more money by playing a simple count quickly—more hands per hour played—than by playing a complex count slowly.
The following table illustrates a few ranking systems for card counting.
Larger ratios between point values can better correlate to actual EOR, but add complexity to the system.
Counting systems may be referred to as "level 1", "level 2", etc.
The ideal system is a system that is usable by the player and offers the highest average dollar return per period of time when dealt at a fixed rate.
With this in mind, systems aim to achieve a balance of efficiency in three categories: Betting correlation BC When the sum of all the permutations of the undealt cards offer a positive expectation to a player using optimal playing strategy, there is a positive expectation to a player placing a bet.
A system's BC gauges how effective a system is at informing the user of this situation.
Playing efficiency PE A portion of the expected profit think, barona casino blackjack rules better from modifying playing strategy based on the known altered composition of cards.
For this reason, a system's PE gauges how effectively it informs the player to modify strategy according to the actual composition of undealt cards.
A system's PE is important when the effect of PE has a large impact on total gain, as in single- and double-deck games.
Insurance correlation IC A portion of expected gain from counting cards comes from taking the insurance bet, which becomes profitable at high counts.
An increase in IC will offer additional value to a card counting system.
Some strategies count the ace ace-reckoned strategies and some do not ace-neutral strategies.
Including aces in the count improves betting correlation since the ace is the most valuable card in the deck for betting purposes.
However, since the ace can either be counted as one or eleven, including an ace in the count decreases the accuracy of playing efficiency.
Since PE is more important in single- and double-deck games, and BC is more important in shoe games, counting the ace is more important in shoe games.
One pity, blackjack tournament twin river opinion to deal with such tradeoffs is to ignore the ace to yield higher PE while keeping a side count which is used to detect addition change in EV which the player will use to detect additional betting opportunities which ordinarily would not be indicated by the primary card counting system.
The most commonly side counted card is the ace since it is the most important card in terms of achieving a balance of BC and PE.
In theory a player could keep a side count of every card and achieve a near 100% PE, however methods involving additional side counts for PE become more complex at an exponential rate as you add more side counts and the ability of the human mind is quickly overtasked and unable https://yournaughtystory.com/blackjack/jeux-de-casino-blackjack-gratuit.html make the necessary computations.
Without any side counts, PE can approach 70%.
Since there is the potential to create an overtaxing demand on the human mind while using a card counting system another important design consideration is the ease of use.
The Running count is the running total of each card's assigned value.
When using Balanced count such as the Hi-Lo systemthe Running count is converted into a "True count," which takes into consideration the number of decks used.
With Hi-Lo, the True count is essentially the Running count divided by the number of decks that have not yet been dealt; this can be calculated by division or approximated with an average card count per round times the number of rounds dealt.
However, many variations of True count calculation exist.
Back-counting, also known as "Wonging," consists of standing behind a blackjack table that other players are playing on, and counting the cards as they are dealt.
The player will enter or "Wong in" to the game when the count reaches a point at which the player has an advantage.
Some back-counters prefer to flat-bet, and only bet the same amount once they have entered the game.
Some players will stay at the table until the game is shuffled, or they may "Wong out" or leave when the count reaches a level at which they no longer have an advantage.
Back-counting is generally done on shoe games, of 4, 6, blackjack card counting speed count 8 decks, although it can be done on pitch games of 1 or 2 decks.
The reason for this is that the count is more stable in a shoe game, so a player will be less likely to sit down for one or two hands and then have to get up.
In addition, many casinos do not allow "mid-shoe entry" in single or double deck games which makes Wonging impossible.
Another reason is that many casinos exhibit more effort to thwart card counters on their pitch games than on their shoe games, as a counter has a smaller advantage on an average shoe game than in a pitch game.
Advantages Back-counting is different from traditional card-counting, in that the player does not play every hand he sees.
This offers several advantages.
For one, the player does not play hands at which he does not have a statistical advantage.
This increases the total advantage of the player.
Another advantage is that the player does not have to change their bet size as much, or at all if they choose.
Large variations in bet size are one way that casinos detect card counters, https://yournaughtystory.com/blackjack/wizard-of-odds-blackjack-rules.html this is eliminated with back-counting.
Disadvantages There are several video blackjack in arizona to back-counting.
One is that the player frequently does not stay at the table long enough to earn from the casino.
Another disadvantage is that some players may become irritated with players who enter in the middle of a game, and superstitiously believe that this interrupts the "flow" of the cards.
Their resentment may not merely be superstition, though, as this practice will negatively impact the other players at the table, because with one fewer player at the table when the card composition becomes unfavorable, the other players will play through more hands under those conditions as they will use up fewer cards per hand, and similarly, they will play fewer hands in the rest of the card shoe if the advantage player slips in during the middle of the shoe when the cards become favorable because with one more player, more of those favorable cards will be used up per hand.
This negatively impacts the other players, whether they are counting cards or not.
Lastly, a player who hops in and out of games may attract unwanted attention from casino personnel, and may be detected as a card-counter.
Group counting While a single player can maintain their own advantage with back-counting, card counting is most often used by teams of players to maximize their advantage.
In such a team, some players called "spotters" will sit at a table and play the game at the table minimum, while keeping a count basically doing the back "counting".
When the count is significantly high, the spotter will discreetly signal another player, known as a "big player," that the count is high the table is "hot".
The big player will then "Wong in" and wager vastly higher sums up to the table maximum while the count is high.
When the count "cools off" or the shoe is shuffled resetting the countthe big player will "Wong out" and look for other counters who are signaling a high count.
This was the system used by thewhose story was in turn the inspiration for the Canadian movie which was later re-made into the version.
The main advantage of group play is that the team can count several tables while a single back-counting player can usually only track one table.
This allows big players to move from table to table, maintaining the high-count advantage without being out of action very long.
The disadvantages include requiring multiple spotters who can keep an accurate count, splitting the "take" among all members of the team, requiring spotters to play a table regardless of the count using only basic strategy, these players will lose money long-termand requiring signals, which can alert pit message c# blackjack game tutorial did />A simple variation removes the loss of having spotters play; the spotters simply watch the table instead of playing and signal big players to Wong in and out as normal.
The disadvantages of this variation are reduced ability of the spotter and big player to communicate, reduced comps as the spotters are not sitting down, and vastly increased suspicion, as blackjack is not generally considered a spectator sport in casinos except among those actually playing unlikeand which have larger displays and so tend to attract more spectators.
A mathematical principle called the indicates that bet increases should be proportional to the player advantage.
In practice, this means that the higher the count, the more a player should bet on each hand in order to take advantage of the player edge.
Using this principle, a card counter may elect to vary his bet size in proportion to the advantage dictated by a count creating what is called a "Bet ramp" according to the principles of the Kelly criterion.
A bet ramp is a betting plan with a specific bet size tied to each true count value in such a way that the player is betting proportionally to the player advantage with aims to maximize overall bankroll growth.
Taken to its ultimate conclusion, the Kelly criterion would demand that a player not bet anything at all when the deck does not offer a positive expectation; the "Wonging" strategy described above implements this.
Historically, blackjack played with a perfect basic strategy offered a house edge of less than 0.
As more casinos have switched games to dealer hits soft-17 and blackjack pays 6:5, the average house edge in Nevada has increased to 1%.
A typical card counter who ranges bets appropriately in a game with six decks will have an advantage of approximately 1% over the casino.
Advantages of up to 2.
This amount varies based on the counter's skill level, penetration 1 — fraction of pack cut offand the betting spread player's maximum bet divided by minimum bet.
The variance in blackjack is high, so generating a sizable profit can take hundreds of hours of play.
The deck will only have a positive enough count for the player to raise bets 10%-35% of the time depending on rules, penetration and strategy.
Under one set of circumstance, a player with a 1-15 unit bet spread with only one-deck cut off of a six-deck game will enjoy an advantage of as much as 1.
Therefore, it is highly advisable for counters to set aside a large dedicated bankroll; one popular dictates a bankroll of 100 times the maximum bet per hand.
Another aspect of the probability of card counting is that, at higher counts, blackjack card counting speed count player's probability of winning a hand is only slightly changed and still below 50%.
The player's edge over the house on such hands does not come from the player's probability of winning the hands.
Instead it comes from the increased probability of blackjacks, increased gain and benefit from doubling, splitting and surrender, and the insurance side bet, which becomes profitable at high counts.
A range of card counting devices are available but are deemed to be illegal in most U.
Card counting with the mind is legal, although casinos in the US reserve the right to remove anyone they suspect of using the technique.
The examples and perspective in this section deal primarily with the United States and do not represent a of the subject.
You maydiscuss the issue on theoras appropriate.
December 2010 Card counting is not illegal under British law, nor is it under federal, state, or local laws in the United States provided that no external card counting device or person assists the player in counting cards.
Still, casinos object to the practice, and try to prevent it, banning players believed to blackjack card counting speed count counters.
In their pursuit to identify card counters, casinos sometimes misidentify and ban players suspected of counting cards even if they do not.
In 1979a inductee, filed a lawsuit against an Atlantic City casino, claiming that casinos did not have the right to ban skilled players.
The agreed, ruling that "the state's control of Atlantic City's casinos is so complete that only the New Jersey Casino Control Commission has the power to make rules to exclude skillful players.
As they are unable to ban counters even when identified, Atlantic City casinos have increased the use of.
Detection Monitoring player behavior to assist with detecting the card counters falls into the hands of the on-floor casino personnel "" and casino-surveillance personnel, who may use video surveillance "the " as well as computer analysis, to try to spot playing behavior indicative of card counting.
Early counter-strategies featured the dealers learning to count the cards themselves to recognize the patterns in the players.
Many casino chains keep databases of players that they consider undesirable.
Casinos can also subscribe to databases of advantage players offered by agencies likeBiometrica and OSN Oregon Surveillance Network.
Griffin Investigations filed for bankruptcy protection in 2005 after losing a libel lawsuit filed by professional gamblers.
In 2008 all Chapter 11 payments were said to be up to date and all requirements met, and information was being supplied using and.
For successful card counters, therefore, skill at "cover" behavior, to hide counting and avoid "drawing heat" and possibly being barred, may be just as blackjack card counting speed count as playing skill.
Detection of card counters will be blackjack card counting speed count after a player is first suspected of counting cards; when seeking card counters, casino employees, whatever their position, could be alerted by many things that are most common when related to card counting but not common for other players.
Extremely aggressive plays such as splitting tens and doubling soft 19 and 20 are often called out to the pit to notify them because they are telltale signs of not only card counters but.
Technology for detecting card counters Several semi-automated systems have been designed to aid detection of card counters.
The system now discontinued scanned card values as the cards were dealt.
The Intelligent Shoe system also scans card values as cards exit the shoe.
Software called Bloodhound and Protec 21 allow voice input of card and bet values, in an attempt to determine the player edge.
A more recent innovation is the use of signatures embedded within the casino chips so that the table can automatically track bet amounts.
Automated card-reading technology has known abuse potential in that it can be used to simplify the practice of preferential shuffling—having the dealer reshuffle the cards whenever the odds favor the players.
To comply with licensing regulations, some blackjack protection systems have been designed to delay access to real-time data on remaining cards in the shoe.
Other vendors consider real-time notification to surveillance that a shoe is "hot" to be an important product feature.
With card values, play decisions, and bet decisions conveniently accessible, the casino can analyze bet variation, play accuracy, and play variation.
The simplest way a card counter makes money is to bet more when he has an edge.
While playing back the tapes of a recent session of play, software can generate a scatter plot of the amount bet versus the count at the time the bet was made and find the trendline that best fits the scattered points.
If the player is not counting cards, there will be no trend; his bet variation and the count variation will not consistently correlate.
If the player is counting and varying bets according to the count, there will be a trend whose slope reflects the player's average edge from this technique.
When card counters vary from basic strategy, they do so in response to the count, to gain an additional edge.
Software can verify whether there is a pattern to play variation.
Of particular interest is whether the player sometimes when the count is positive takes insurance and stands on 16 versus a dealer 10, but plays differently when the count is negative.
Countermeasures Casinos have spent a great amount of effort and money in trying to thwart card counters.
This reduces the advantage of card counting.
click also includes changing a table's stakes.
Other jurisdictions such as limit the countermeasures a casino can take against skilled players.
Casinos have resorted to physical assaults to deter card counters.
Assaults are less common than in the early days of card counting.
Some countermeasures result in disadvantages for the casino.
Frequent or complex shuffling, for example, reduces the amount of playing time and consequently the house winnings.
Some casinos use automatic shuffling machines to counter the loss of time, with some models of machines shuffling blackjack card counting speed count set of cards while another is in play.
Others, known as continuous shuffle machines CSMsallow the dealer to https://yournaughtystory.com/blackjack/felt-blackjack-table-cover.html return used cards to a single shoe to allow playing with no interruption.
Because CSMs essentially force minimal penetration, they greatly reduce the advantage of traditional counting techniques.
In most online casinos the blackjack review is shuffled at the start of each new round, ensuring the house always has the advantage.
American is considered the father of card counting.
His 1962 book, Beat the Dealer, outlined various betting and playing strategies for optimal blackjack play.
Although mathematically sound, some of the techniques described no longer apply, as took counter-measures such as no longer dealing to the last card.
Also, the counting system described 10-count is harder to use and less profitable than the point-count systems that have been developed since.
A history of how counting developed can be seen in David Layton's documentary film.
Even before the publication of Beat the Dealer, however, a small number of professional card counters were beating blackjack games in Las Vegas and casinos elsewhere.
One of these early card counters was Jess Marcum, who is described in documents and interviews with professional gamblers of the time as having developed the first full-fledged point-count system.
Another documented pre-Thorp card counter was a professional gambler named Joe Bernstein, who is described in the 1961 book I Want To Quit Winners, by Reno casino owner Harold Smith, as an Ace counter feared throughout the learn more here of Nevada.
And in the 1957 book Playing Blackjack to Win, Roger Baldwin, Wilbert Cantey, Herbert Maisel, and James McDermott known among card counters as "The Four Horsemen" published the first accurate blackjack basic strategy and a rudimentary card-counting system, devised solely with the aid of crude —what used to be called "adding machines.
Ken Uston, though perhaps the most famous card-counter through his 60 Minutes television appearance and his books, tended to overstate his winnings, as documented by players who worked with him, including Al Francesco and team member Darryl Purpose.
In the 1970s and 1980s, as computing power grew, more advanced and more difficult card-counting systems came into favor.
Many card counters agree, however, that a simpler and less advantageous system that can be played flawlessly for hours earns an overall higher return than a more complex system prone to user error.
Teams This article includes abut its sources remain unclear because it has insufficient.
Please help to this article by more precise citations.
May 2012 In the 1970s Ken Uston was the first to write about a tactic of card counting he called the Big Player Team.
The book was based on his experiences working as a "big player" BP on Al Francesco's teams.
In big-player blackjack teams a number of card counters, called "spotters," are dispatched to tables around a casino, where their responsibility is to keep track of the count and signal to the big player when the count indicates a player advantage.
The big player then joins the game at that table, placing maximum bets at a player advantage.
When the spotter indicates that the count has dropped, he again signals the BP to leave the table.
By jumping from table to table as called in by spotters, the BP avoids all play at a disadvantage.
In addition, since the BP's play appears random and irrational, he avoids detection by the casinos.
The spotters, who are doing the actual counting, are not themselves changing their bet size or strategy, so they are relatively inconspicuous.
With this style of play, see more number of blackjack teams have cleared millions of dollars through the years.
Well-known blackjack teams with documented earnings in the millions include those run by Al Francesco, Ken Uston, Tommy Hyland, various groups from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and, most recently, a team called "The Greeks.
See also the Canadian surat blackjack club and the American moviewhich was based on Mezrich's book.
The publication of Ken Uston's books and of his landmark lawsuits against the casinos, both stimulated the growth of blackjack teams Hyland's team and the first MIT team were formed in Atlantic City shortly after the publication of Million Dollar Blackjack and increased casino awareness of the methods of blackjack teams, making it more difficult for such teams to operate.
Hyland and Francesco soon switched to a form of shuffle tracking called "Ace sequencing.
This made it more difficult for casinos to detect when team members were playing with an advantage.
In 1994, members of the Hyland team were arrested for Ace sequencing and blackjack team play at in .
It was documented in court that Nevada casinos with ownership stakes in the Windsor casino were instrumental in the decision to prosecute team members on cheating charges.
However, the ruled that the players' conduct was not cheating, but merely the use of intelligent strategy.
Shuffling machines Main article: Automatic shuffling machines ASMs or batch shufflersthat shuffle decks, interfere with the shuffle tracking variation of card counting by hiding the shuffle.
Continuous shuffling machines CSMsthat partially shuffle used cards back into the "shoe" after every hand, interfere with card counting.
CSMs result in very shallow penetration number of seen cards greatly reducing the effectiveness of card counting.
The theory of blackjack : the compleat card counter's guide to the casino game of 21 6th ed.
Sklar February 29, 2012.
Retrieved August 26, 2014.
Retrieved 10 July 2014.
Retrieved 27 October 2019.
On the other hand, neither card counting nor.
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Blackjack and the law 1st ed.
Oakland, CA: RGE Pub.
Blackjack Blueprint: How to Play Like a Pro.
Retrieved 22 March 2018.
Casino-ology 2: New Strategies for Managing Casino Games.
Exhibit CAA : beyond counting 1st ed.
Las Vegas, NV: South Side Advantage Press, LLC.
The card counter's guide to casino surveillance.
Retrieved 19 November 2017.
The Law for Gamblers: A Legal Guide to the Casino Environment.
Casino-ology: The Art of Managing Casino Games.
Retrieved 17 November 2017.
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The Theory of Blackjack: The Complete Card Counter's Guide 4th ed.
Las Vegas: Huntington Press.
Nelson; Loeb, Robert A.
Blackjack and the Law 1st ed.
Oakland, CA: RGE Publishers.
Blackjack Attack: playing the pros' way 3rd ed.
Las Vegas: RGE Publishing.
The Big Book of Blackjack 1st ed.
New York: Cardoza Publishing.
Beat the Dealer: A Winning Strategy for the Game of Twenty One.
New York: Vintage Books.
The Pro's Guide to Spanish 21 and Australian Pontoon.
New York: Maven Press.
Advantage Play for click at this page Casino Executive.
Blackbelt in Blackjack: Playing 21 as a Martial Art Revised ed.
New York: Cardoza Publishing.

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The Easy OPP Count: A New and Easier Approach to Card Counting The Easy OPP Count: A New Approach to Card Counting CARD COUNTING SYSTEMS: CONTENTS By Carlos Zilzer By Rich Victor By Arnold Snyder By Arnold Snyder By Arnold Snyder For the vision-impaired By Arnold Snyder Another system for the vision-impaired By Arnold Snyder By ETFan COMPUTER POWER TO THE PEOPLE!!
Carlos Zilzer has developed a unique method of counting cards that is even simpler than the Red Seven Count.
Because there was no commercially available blackjack simulation software on the market that could handle the new method Carlos had devised for counting cards, he wrote his own program and begun testing his system on a simulator of his own device.
When he discovered that PowerSim was producing results comparable to his own software program, he submitted an article to Blackjack Forum describing his system and the simulation results.
The OPP Count is such a radical simplification of traditional card blackjack buying insurance methods that I wanted to see more data before publishing the system.
I asked Carlos to run more extensive tests not only of his system as described in the initial article that he submitted, but of numerous variations of the system, along with simulations of the Hi-Lo Count in the same games for comparison with his method.
I also requested that he set counters on his simulations so that I could see that cards were being dealt accurately and randomly.
Carlos spent weeks running the simulation tests I requested and sending me spreadsheets with printouts of his results.
He then compiled some of the most important data from these tests into a new Blackjack Forum article describing his system, its development, and the results of his simulations.
A shoe rich in high cards tens and aces is favorable to the player, while a shoe rich source low cards 2s through 6s is favorable to the house.
All modern card counting systems that I am aware of assign a negative value to the high cards and a positive value to low cards.
The more info difference between the systems is the value assigned to the different cards.
As an example, the popular Hi-Lo system assigns the value -1 to the tens and aces and the value +1 to the low cards, 2s through 6s.
As the cards come out of the shoe, players add the values of those cards to obtain what is called a running count, which can be a positive or negative number depending on the proportion of low to high cards dealt from the shoe.
With balanced counts, before making a betting or playing decision, the player divides the running count by the number of decks that have not yet been dealt to obtain what is called the true count.
Counting this way is not easy, as the player needs to pay attention to the cards while they are being dealt and then must make mental calculations.
There are easier counting systems that eliminate the calculation of the true count by assigning positive values to more cards than those with negative values.
For example, the Red Seven Count developed by Arnold Snyder has the same card values as the balanced Hi-Lo Count, but assigns a value of +1 to the red sevens, creating an imbalance of +2 per deck.
The goal of a good card-counting system is to be as simple to use as possible without losing the power to accurately determine when the player has the advantage.
The OPP count does exactly that: It is a very simple method to learn and use that will give you results comparable to the Hi Lo Count.
The main difference between this new counting system and all of the traditional ones is that it uses new factors to determine the composition of the remaining decks.
It is the easiest way to count cards with a high degree of betting accuracy.
Part 2: The Mathematical Coincidence In a deck of 52 cards there are 20 high cards tens, faces and aces.
There are also 20 low cards 2s through 6s.
It has also been determined with computer simulations that each player or dealer hand will receive an average number of blackjack card counting speed count very close to 2.
The actual number determined after the simulation of billions of hands using different simulators is 2.
Now we have something very interesting: Since the average blackjack hand contains 2.
With the help of computer simulation see my results belowit has been shown that any player or dealer hand will actually receive an average of about 1.
In the table below, you will find the results of a 100 million hand simulation using PowerSim for a 6-deck game.
OPP stands for One Per Person.
As I will explain, the number of low or high cards per hand will give a very good indication of the composition of the remaining decks.
Part 3: Developing and Testing the Easy OPP Card Counting System I first tested counting the number of high cards that were dealt per round and comparing this number with the total number of hands dealt per round.
Imagine a blackjack table with three players and the dealer dealing the first round of the shoe.
These are the first round hands: Player 1 Ace, 10 — Blackjack Player 2 10, 2, 7 — 19 Player 3 8, 6, 10 — bust Dealer 10, 3, 6 — 19 As you can see there were 4 hands played and 5 high cards were dealt an ace and 10 to Player 1, a ten to Player 2, a ten to Player 3, and a ten to the Dealer.
The next round the blackjack card counting speed count dealt were: Player 1 10, 5, 5 — 20 Player 2 Ace, 2, 5 — 18 Player 3 8, 6, 7— 21 Dealer 9, 5, 3 — 17 At this time there were again 4 hands played, but only 2 high cards were dealt.
This process continues until the end of the shoe, adding the running count of each round to the cumulative running count of the prior rounds.
None of the commercially available blackjack simulation programs could be adapted to test this new counting system, so it was necessary to develop a simulator for this job specifically.
The first simulations I ran, using my own simulation program, were performed in the beginning of 2005 using a program specially written for the tests.
It was slow but returned the data I was looking for.
With the new powerful and fast open source PowerSim simulator, available on this Web site, simulations that used to take me about two hours are now performed in eight minutes.
The first step was to verify that the count was producing logical results.
We would expect the count to present a normal distribution of positive and negative counts with the majority of counts around zero, and a reasonable spread of counts on both the positive and negative side.
This is a graph of what the simulation showed: The chart shows the PowerSim results for 100 million rounds of a player using basic strategy in a six-deck game.
The running counts are on the horizontal axis, and the percentage of occurrence of these counts is on the vertical.
About 80% of the hands were played with running counts between -6 and +6 and approximately 14% of the hands were played at a zero running count.
But the graph shows that the count is negative more times than positive.
This is not what we would expect for a traditional balanced counting system, which would tend to produce a more symmetrical pattern of counts on either side of zero.
The chart above shows that the relation between the running count and the advantage is almost linear up to counts of +12, but that the relation becomes erratic at counts higher than +12.
I tried several simulations with PowerSim and always got inconsistent results starting at counts of +12 and above.
I next wanted to see what the overall player advantage would be using this counting system with a bet spread.
I ran a 100 million-hand simulation using the following bet ramp: 1 unit up to count +1 and ramping up 2, 4, and 16 units respectively at counts +2, +3 and +4.
The following results were obtained using the PowerSim simulator: Advantage with 1-16 spread 0.
Before dropping the idea I decided to reverse the OPP counting method.
Instead of subtracting the number of high cards dealt per round from the number of hands in play, I decided to test the system subtracting the number of hands in play from the number of low cards dealt per round.
These are the first round hands: Player 1 Ace, 10 — Blackjack Player 2 10, 2, 7 — 19 Player 3 8, 6, 10 — bust Dealer 7, 7, 5 — 19 As you can see there were 4 hands played and only 3 low cards were dealt a 2 to Player 2, a 6 to Player 3, and a 5 to the Dealer.
The next round the hands dealt were: Player 1 10, 5, 5 — 20 Player 2 Ace, 2, 4, 10 — 17 Player 3 8, 6, 7 — 21 Dealer 10, 4, 3 — 17 At this time there were also 4 hands played but 7 low cards were dealt.
This process continues until the end of the shoe, adding the running count of each round to the cumulative running count of the prior rounds.
When I reversed the OPP counting blackjack card counting speed count in this way, comparing the number of low cards dealt to the number of hands in play, the PowerSim simulations gave the following result for the count distribution: Again, the running counts are on the horizontal axis, and the percentage of occurrence of these counts is on the vertical.
We again have a normal distribution of the counts with more link 80% of the counts occurring in the range from -6 to +6.
But this time the count distribution is more positive than negative.
As for the correlation of the count to the player advantage, I got the following results: This graph shows that casino blackjack is a much more linear relation between the running count and the player expectation.
The unpredictable results obtained at high counts when using the OPP method to compare high cards to hands dealt do not occur when we compare low cards blackjack card counting speed count hands dealt.
The results shown in the graph are again from a simulation of 100 million hands played using basic strategy with standard US rules in a six-deck game with 75% penetration.
With this OPP counting method, the player starts to have an edge over the house when the running count reaches +5.
I then ran a simulation applying a bet ramp of 1 unit up to a count of +5, and ramping up to 2, 4, and 16 units at counts of +6, +7, and +8 respectively.
The following results compare the OPP with the Hi Lo Count with a similar 1-to-16 bet ramp.
Both systems were tested using basic strategy only.
OPP Hi Lo Player edge with bet ramp 0.
A new and very simple count system has been born: the OPP Count system.
The player counts only the number of low cards dealt per round and compares this with the number of hands played in the round.
Mathematical Considerations Many players may wonder why counting the high cards versus hands dealt was less efficient than counting the low cards versus hands dealt.
That is because the OPP method does not really have us comparing low cards with high cards as with a traditional card counting system.
Instead, we are comparing low cards or high cards with something that has a frequency distribution of its own—that is, the number of cards per hand.
We know that the overall average number of cards per hand is 2.
It is logical that the number of cards per hand will be higher when the count is rising because more cards will be required to complete the training blackjack count cards when extra low cards are being dealt.
Consider what happens when counting high cards per hand if we have a hand blackjack card counting speed count 3 or 4 low cards, then hit with a high card and bust.
It is less probable to have a hand with 3 or 4 high cards in it, because such a hand would require either a soft or stiff hand to start with that we hit with multiple aces.
Multiple-high-card hands would be rare, while multiple-low-card hands would occur more frequently, and produce a more accurate measure of advantage.
Analyses of Two-deck and Eight-deck Blackjack Games In order to configure a system usable in most situations, I performed simulations with PowerSim to determine the effectiveness of the OPP count in games with two decks and eight decks, again comparing the betting gain with the gain from Hi-Lo.
Two Decks Applying a bet ramp with a spread of 1 unit up to a count of +1 and ramping up 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 units respectively at counts of +2, +3, +4, +5 and +6, the https://yournaughtystory.com/blackjack/kristine-sloth-usa-hauling.html results were obtained using the PowerSim simulator again, with both systems playing basic strategy only : Two deck performance OPP Hi Lo Player edge with bet ramp 0.
Eight Decks Applying a bet ramp with a spread of 1 unit up to count +7 and ramping up 2, 4 and 16 units respectively at counts +8, +9 and +10, the following results were obtained using the PowerSim simulator again with both the OPP and Hi-Lo playing basic strategy only : Eight deck performance OPP Hi Lo Player edge with bet ramp 0.
For a 2-deck game the index is +5, and for an 8-deck game the index is +14.
The OPP Count, however, does not correlate well with the insurance effects of removal since ten-valued cards are not actually counted.
I suspect that OPP running count indices for some of the more important strategy decisions, however, especially standing on 15 or 16 v.
Ten, will be found by Carlos and others through continued simulation tests, as the counting method will probably correlate very well with these decisions.
The use of basic strategy will provide the player with the minimum advantage for the house.
The counting system will turn that small house advantage into a small advantage for the player.
For example: Ace, Ace, 2, 2, 10, 3 has an OPP value of +2 2, 3, 5, 3, 6 has an OPP value of + 4 7, 7, 7 has an OPP value of -1 Ace, 10 has an OPP value of -1 6, 7, 8 has an OPP value of 0 9, 8 has an OPP value of -1 10, 6, Ace has an OPP value of 0 Counting the Cards It is very easy to mentally count up or down in positive numbers.
Considering that 80% of the hands will be in the range of -6 to +6, I recommend starting the running count for the OPP system at +6 at the beginning of a shoe.
In this way, the count will very seldom reach negative numbers.
Wait for the dealer to deal the first two cards to each player, as well as the two dealer cards upcard and hole card, if dealt.
You can speak, make jokes, and drink your soft drink.
If someone gets a blackjack and the dealer blackjack card counting speed count him and places his cards in the discard try, subtract one from your running count.
Then check the hand of each player as they are making their playing decisions.
Beginning of the shoe: Running count +6 Player 4 Ace, 10 blackjack Running count +5 dealer took the cards to the discard try Player 1 Ace, Ace, 2, 2, 10, 3 Running count +7 Player 2 2, 3, 5, 3, 6 Running count +11 Player 3 7, 7, 7 Running count +10 Player 5 6, 7, 8 Running count +10 Player 6 9, 8 Running count +9 Dealer 10, 6, Ace Running count +9 If any player happens to split hands, they should be considered new hands and the value of the original hand should be ignored.
The best way to practice the system is to play blackjack at home.
Use a deck and start dealing cards to three imaginary players and to yourself as the dealer.
Practice the count as indicated above while you play each hand.
In this way you will see and practice counting all possible hands that can appear in real life games.
You will learn to count spilt hands and to count very fast while the dealer is collecting the cards after a dealer blackjack.
Before the hands are dealt, I immediately subtract the number of hands in play.
Then, as each player plays his hand, I simply add the total number of low cards in it.
One of the best features of the OPP Count is that it makes back-counting and table-hopping a breeze.
You can approach a table and quickly scan for the total number of low cards on the layout, then subtract the number of hands that were in play after you get your low-card count.
When you feel proficient counting the cards at home, you can practice in an Internet casino playing for fun money at a table with multiple players.
You will only use these games as a practice method.
After you have practiced enough at home, go to a casino and start counting while other people play.
When you feel comfortable sit at a table and start playing using the OPP count.
You will see that you will get used to the system very fast, and that it really does not require 100% concentration except when each player is making his playing decisions.
Betting to Win Once you have learned this very simple counting method the only thing you need to do is wait for the right moment to increase your bet.
If you have started at a running count of +6, wait until the count reaches +12 for a six-deck game, +14 for an eight-deck game, or +8 for a two-deck game.
At these counts the advantage has shifted to the players.
The higher the count value, the higher the player edge, and the bigger your bet should be.
Only about 18% of your hands will be played at counts over the pivot in shoe games, and the player advantage will not occur in all shoes.
Also remember will standard blackjack table consider there is no warranty that you will win most of your hands when the count reaches the pivot.
Remember that there will be many times when you will lose high bet hands.
The following table shows the recommended bet ramps for games with two, six, and eight decks, to get the best advantage for the player at the minimum risk.
The first click to see more columns are the running counts where you raise your bet, according to the number of decks in the game.
This will save you a lot of money.
Players in the US or elsewhere must always bear in mind the heat factor.
His two-deck betting strategy would likely get you booted out fairly quickly in many US casinos.
For playing shoe games in the US, a back-counting strategy would likely be more advisable and more profitable theme stardust blackjack table valued are a 1-16 spread.
To back-count is to watch the cards being dealt on a table without playing, ready to jump in and play when the count goes up and you will be starting play with an advantage.
Table-hopping is an extension of back-counting that pros use in big casinos, which tend to have multiple pits with many blackjack tables.
Table-hoppers leave the game when the count goes negative and start play at another table.
They refuse to play when the casino has a big edge.
With the OPP Count, if we start our count at +6 at the beginning of the shoe, the insurance index is +18 for the six-deck game, +20 for the eight-deck game, and +11 for the two-deck game.
This means that if you are playing in a six-deck game and the running count reaches +18 or more, and the dealer has an Ace up, you should place the insurance bet, because you will win the bet more than 35 % of the time.
Simulations with PowerSim have confirmed these index numbers.
Final Thoughts on the Easy OPP Card Counting System OPP is a very simple system to learn and to use.
Practice at home, go to a casino and stand near a table and practice the count while others play.
I know people who have mastered the system in less than a weekend and now they are part of the select group of players who are making money playing blackjack.
Anything can happen in the short run.
No one can ever guarantee that you will win even when you are playing with an advantage.
Back to the Back to © 2004-2005 Blackjack Forum Online, All Rights Reserved Summary: The Easy OPP Card Counting System provides an innovative and radically easier technique for counting cards.

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A blackjack game in progress Card counting is a casino strategy used primarily in the family of casino games to determine whether the next hand is likely to give a probable advantage to the player or to the dealer.
Card counters are a class ofwho attempt to decrease the inherent house edge by keeping a running tally of all high and low valued cards seen by the player.
Card counting allows players to bet more with less risk when the count gives an advantage as well as minimize losses during an unfavorable count.
Card counting also provides the ability to alter playing decisions based on the composition of remaining cards.
Card counting, also referred to asoften refers to obtaining a sufficient count on the number, distribution and high-card location of cards in such as or to optimize the winning of tricks.
The most common variations of card counting in blackjack are based on statistical evidence that high cards especially aces and 10's, and to a lesser extent 9's benefit the player more than the dealer, while the low cards, 3's, 4's, 6's, and especially 5's, and to a lesser extent 2's and 7's help the dealer while hurting the player.
The dealer cannot double.
Thus a dealer holding 12-16 will bust every time if the next card drawn is a 10, making this card essential to track when card counting.
Contrary to the popular myth, card counters do not need unusual mental abilities to count cards, because they are not tracking and memorizing specific cards.
Instead, card counters assign a point score to each card they see that estimates the value of that card, and then they track the sum of these values — a process called keeping a "running count.
Systems Basic card counting assigns a positive, negative, or zero value to each card value available.
When a card of that value is dealt, the count is adjusted by that card's counting value.
Low cards increase the count as they increase the percentage of high cards in the remaining set of cards, while high cards decrease it for the opposite reason.
For instance, the Hi-Lo system subtracts one for each dealt 10, Jack, Queen, King or Ace, and adds one for any value 2-6.
Values 7-9 are assigned a value of zero and therefore do not affect the count.
The goal of a card counting system is to assign point values that roughly correlate to a card's Effect of Removal EOR.
The EOR is the estimated effect of removing a given card from play, and the resulting impact on the house advantage.
The player may gauge the effect of removal for all cards dealt, and assess the current house advantage of a game based on the remaining cards.
As larger ratios between point values are used to create better correlation to actual EOR with the goal of increasing the efficiency of a system, such systems use more blackjack card counting speed count numbers and are broken into classes depending on such as level 1, level 2, level 3, and so on, with regard to the ratio between the highest and lowest assigned point values.
The High-Low system is considered a level-one count, because the running count never increases or decreases by more than a single, predetermined value.
A multilevel count, such as Zen Count, Wong Halves or Hi-Opt II, makes finer distinctions between card values to gain greater play accuracy.
Advanced players might additionally maintain a side count separate count of specific cards, such as a side count Aces, to deal with situations where the best count for betting accuracy differs from the best count for playing accuracy.
The disadvantage of higher-level counts is that https://yournaughtystory.com/blackjack/iphone-app-blackjack-card-counting.html track of more information may detract from the ability to play quickly and accurately.
Some card counters might earn more money by playing a simple count quickly—more hands per hour played—than by playing a complex count slowly.
The following table illustrates a few ranking systems for card counting.
Larger ratios between point values can better correlate to actual EOR, but add complexity to the system.
Counting systems may be referred to as "level 1", "level 2", etc.
The ideal system is a system that is usable by the player and offers the highest average dollar return per period of time when dealt at a fixed rate.
With this in mind, systems aim to achieve a balance of efficiency in three categories: Betting correlation BC When the sum of all the permutations of the undealt cards offer a positive expectation to a player using optimal playing strategy, there is a positive expectation to a player placing a bet.
A system's BC gauges how effective a system is at informing the user of this situation.
Playing efficiency PE A portion of the expected profit comes from modifying playing strategy based on the known altered composition of cards.
For this reason, a system's PE gauges how effectively it informs the player to modify strategy according to the actual composition of undealt cards.
A system's PE is important when the effect of PE has a large impact on total gain, as in single- and double-deck games.
Insurance correlation IC A portion of expected gain from counting cards comes from taking the insurance bet, which becomes profitable at high counts.
An increase in IC will offer additional value to a card counting system.
Some strategies count the ace ace-reckoned strategies and some do not ace-neutral strategies.
Including aces in the count improves betting correlation since the ace is the most valuable card in the deck for betting purposes.
However, since the ace can either be counted as one or eleven, including an ace in the count decreases the accuracy of playing efficiency.
Since PE is more important in single- and double-deck games, and BC is more important in shoe games, counting the ace is more important in shoe games.
One way to deal with such tradeoffs is to ignore the ace to yield higher PE while keeping a side count which is used to detect addition change in EV which the player will use to detect additional betting opportunities which ordinarily would not be indicated by the primary card counting system.
The most commonly side counted card is the ace since it is the most important card in terms of achieving a balance of BC and PE.
In theory a player could keep a side count of every card and achieve a near 100% PE, however methods involving additional side counts for PE become blackjack card counting speed count complex at an exponential rate as you add more side counts and the ability of the human mind is quickly overtasked and unable to make the necessary computations.
Without any side counts, PE can approach 70%.
Since there is the potential to create an overtaxing demand on the human mind while using a card counting system another important design consideration is the ease of use.
The Running count is the running total of each card's assigned value.
When using Balanced count such as the Hi-Lo systemthe Running count is converted into a "True count," online blackjack using paypal takes into consideration the number of decks used.
With Hi-Lo, the True count is essentially the Running count divided by the number of decks that have not yet been dealt; this can be calculated by division or approximated with an average card count per round times the number of rounds dealt.
However, many variations of True count calculation exist.
Back-counting, also known as "Wonging," consists of standing behind a blackjack table that other players are playing on, and counting the cards as they are dealt.
The player will enter or "Wong in" to the game when the count reaches a point at which the player has an advantage.
Some back-counters prefer to flat-bet, and only bet the same amount once they have entered the game.
Some players will stay at the table until the game is shuffled, or they may "Wong out" or leave when the count reaches a level at which they no longer have an advantage.
Back-counting is generally done on shoe games, of 4, 6, or 8 decks, although it can be done on pitch games of 1 or 2 decks.
The reason for this is that the count is more stable in a shoe game, so a player will be less likely to sit down for one or two hands and then have to get up.
In addition, many casinos do not allow "mid-shoe entry" in single or double deck games which makes Wonging impossible.
Another reason is that many casinos exhibit more effort to thwart card counters on their pitch games than on their shoe games, as a counter has a smaller advantage on an average shoe game than in a pitch game.
Advantages Back-counting is different from traditional card-counting, in that the player does not play every hand he sees.
This offers several advantages.
For one, the player does not play hands at which he does not have a statistical advantage.
This increases the total advantage of the player.
Another advantage is that the player does not have to change their bet size as much, or at all if they choose.
Large variations in bet size are one way that casinos detect card counters, and this is eliminated with back-counting.
Disadvantages There are several disadvantages to back-counting.
One is that the player frequently does not stay at the table long enough to earn from the casino.
Another disadvantage is that some players may become irritated with players who enter in the middle of a game, and superstitiously believe that this interrupts the "flow" of the cards.
Their resentment may not merely be superstition, though, as this practice will negatively impact the other players at the table, because with one fewer player at the table when the card composition becomes unfavorable, the other players will play through more hands under those conditions as they will use up fewer cards per hand, and similarly, they will play fewer hands in the rest of the card shoe if the advantage player slips in during the middle of the shoe when the cards become favorable because with one more player, more of those favorable cards will be used up per hand.
This negatively impacts the other players, whether they are counting cards or not.
Lastly, a player who hops in and out of games may attract unwanted attention from casino personnel, and may be detected as a card-counter.
Group counting While a single player can maintain their own advantage with back-counting, card counting is most often used by teams of players to maximize their advantage.
In such a team, some players called "spotters" will sit at a table and play the game at the table minimum, while keeping a count basically doing the back "counting".
When the count is significantly high, the spotter will discreetly signal another player, known as a "big player," that the count is high the table is "hot".
The big player will then "Wong in" and wager vastly higher sums up to the table maximum while the count is high.
When the count "cools off" or the shoe is shuffled resetting the countthe big player will "Wong out" and look for other counters who are signaling a high count.
This was the system used by thewhose story was in turn the inspiration for the Canadian movie which was later re-made into the version.
The main advantage of group play is that the team can count several tables while a single back-counting player can usually only track one table.
This allows big players to move from table to table, maintaining the high-count advantage without being out of action very long.
The disadvantages include requiring multiple spotters who can keep an accurate count, splitting the "take" among all members of the team, requiring spotters to play a table regardless of the count using only basic strategy, these players will lose money long-termand requiring signals, which can alert pit bosses.
A simple variation removes the loss of having spotters play; the spotters simply watch the table instead of playing and signal big players to Wong in and out as normal.
The disadvantages of this variation are reduced ability of the spotter and big player to communicate, reduced comps as the spotters are not sitting down, and vastly increased suspicion, as blackjack is not generally considered a spectator sport in casinos except among those actually playing unlikeand which have larger displays and so tend to attract more spectators.
A mathematical principle called the indicates that bet increases should be proportional to the player advantage.
In practice, this means that the higher the count, the more a player should bet on each hand in order to take advantage of the player edge.
Using this principle, a card counter may elect to vary his bet size in proportion to the advantage dictated by a count creating what is called a "Bet ramp" according to the principles of the Kelly criterion.
A bet ramp is a betting plan with a specific bet size tied to each true count value in such a way that the player is betting proportionally to the player advantage with aims to maximize overall bankroll growth.
Taken to its ultimate conclusion, the Kelly criterion would demand that a player not bet anything at all when the deck does not offer a positive expectation; the "Wonging" strategy described above implements this.
Historically, blackjack played with a perfect basic strategy offered a house edge of less than 0.
As more blackjack card counting speed count have switched games to dealer hits soft-17 and blackjack pays 6:5, the average house edge in Nevada has increased to 1%.
A typical card counter who ranges bets appropriately in a game with six decks will have an advantage of approximately 1% over the casino.
Advantages of up to 2.
This amount varies based on the counter's skill level, penetration 1 — fraction of pack cut offand the betting spread player's maximum bet divided by minimum bet.
The variance in blackjack is high, so generating a sizable profit can take hundreds of hours of play.
The deck will only have a positive enough count for the player to raise bets 10%-35% of the time depending on rules, penetration and strategy.
Under one set of circumstance, a player with a 1-15 unit bet spread with only one-deck cut off of a six-deck game will enjoy an advantage of as much as 1.
Another aspect of the probability of card counting is that, at higher counts, the player's probability of winning a hand is only slightly changed and still below 50%.
The player's edge over the house on such hands does not come from the read article probability of winning the hands.
Instead it comes from the increased probability of blackjacks, increased gain and benefit from doubling, splitting and surrender, and the insurance side bet, which becomes profitable at high counts.
A range of card counting devices are available but are deemed to be illegal in most U.
Card counting with the mind is legal, although casinos blackjack sls c 1 fr s p the US reserve the right to remove anyone they suspect of using the technique.
The examples and perspective in this section deal primarily with the United States and do not represent a of the subject.
You maydiscuss the issue on theoras appropriate.
December 2010 Card counting is not illegal under British law, nor is it under federal, state, or local laws in the United States provided that no external card counting device or person assists the player in counting cards.
Still, casinos object to the practice, and try to prevent it, banning players believed to be counters.
In their pursuit to identify card counters, casinos sometimes misidentify and ban players suspected of counting cards even if they do not.
In 1979a inductee, filed a lawsuit against an Atlantic City casino, claiming that casinos did not have the right to ban skilled players.
The agreed, ruling that "the state's control of Atlantic City's casinos is so complete that only the New Jersey Casino Control Commission has the power to make rules to exclude skillful players.
As they are unable to ban counters even when identified, Atlantic City casinos have increased the use of.
Detection Monitoring player behavior to assist with detecting the card counters falls into the hands of the on-floor casino personnel "" and casino-surveillance personnel, who may use video surveillance "the " as well as computer analysis, to try to spot playing behavior indicative of card counting.
Early counter-strategies featured the dealers learning to count the cards themselves to recognize the patterns in the players.
Many casino chains keep databases of players that they consider undesirable.
Casinos can also subscribe to databases of advantage players offered by agencies likeBiometrica and OSN Oregon Surveillance Network.
Griffin Investigations filed for bankruptcy protection in 2005 after losing a libel lawsuit filed by professional gamblers.
In 2008 all Chapter 11 payments were said to be up to date and all requirements met, and information was being supplied using and.
For successful card counters, therefore, skill at "cover" behavior, to hide counting and avoid "drawing heat" and possibly being barred, may be just as important as playing skill.
Detection of card counters will be confirmed after a player is first suspected of counting cards; when seeking card counters, casino employees, whatever their position, could be alerted by many things that are most common when related to card counting but not common for other players.
Extremely aggressive plays such as splitting tens and doubling soft 19 and 20 are often called out to blackjack card counting speed count pit to notify them because they are telltale signs of not only card counters but.
Technology for detecting card counters Several semi-automated systems have been designed to aid detection of card counters.
The system now discontinued scanned card values as the cards were dealt.
The Intelligent Shoe system also scans card values as cards exit the shoe.
Software called Bloodhound and Protec 21 allow voice input of card and bet values, in an attempt to determine the player edge.
A more recent innovation is the use of signatures embedded within the casino chips so that the table can automatically track bet amounts.
Automated card-reading technology has known abuse potential in that it can be used to simplify the practice of preferential shuffling—having the dealer reshuffle the cards whenever the odds favor the players.
To comply with licensing regulations, some blackjack protection systems have been designed to delay access to real-time data on remaining cards in the shoe.
Other vendors consider real-time notification to surveillance that a shoe is "hot" to be an important product source />With card values, play decisions, and bet decisions conveniently accessible, the casino can analyze bet variation, play accuracy, and play variation.
The simplest way a card counter makes money is to bet more when he has an edge.
While playing back the tapes of a recent session of play, software can generate a scatter plot of the amount bet versus the count at the time the click to see more was made and find the trendline that best fits the scattered points.
If the player is not counting cards, there will be no trend; his bet variation and the count variation will not consistently correlate.
If the player is counting and varying bets according to the count, there will be a trend whose slope reflects the player's average edge from this technique.
When card counters vary from basic strategy, they do so in response to the count, to gain an additional edge.
Software can verify whether there is a pattern to play variation.
Of particular interest is whether the player sometimes when the count is positive takes insurance and stands on 16 versus a dealer 10, but plays differently when the count is negative.
Countermeasures Casinos have spent a great amount of effort and money in trying to thwart card counters.
This reduces the advantage of card counting.
This also includes changing a table's stakes.
Other jurisdictions such as limit the countermeasures a casino can take against skilled players.
Casinos have resorted to physical assaults to deter card counters.
Assaults are less common than in the early days of card counting.
Some countermeasures result in disadvantages for the casino.
Frequent or complex shuffling, for example, reduces the amount of playing time and consequently the house winnings.
Some casinos use automatic shuffling machines to counter the loss of time, with some models of machines shuffling one set of cards while another is in play.
Others, known as continuous shuffle machines CSMsallow the dealer to simply return used cards to a single shoe to allow playing with no interruption.
Because CSMs essentially force minimal penetration, they greatly reduce the advantage of traditional counting techniques.
In most online casinos the deck is shuffled at the start of each new round, ensuring the house always has the advantage.
American is considered the father of card counting.
His 1962 book, Beat the Dealer, outlined various betting and playing strategies for optimal blackjack play.
Although mathematically sound, some of the techniques described no longer apply, as took counter-measures such as no longer dealing to the last card.
Also, the counting system described 10-count is harder to use and less profitable than the point-count systems that have been developed since.
A history of how counting developed can be seen in David Layton's documentary film.
Even before the publication of Blackjack card counting speed count the Dealer, however, a small number of professional card counters were beating blackjack games in Las Vegas and casinos elsewhere.
One of these early card counters was Jess Marcum, who is described in documents and interviews with professional gamblers of the time as having developed the first full-fledged point-count system.
Another documented pre-Thorp card counter was a professional gambler named Joe Bernstein, who is described in the 1961 book I Want To Quit Winners, by Reno casino owner Harold Smith, as an Ace counter feared throughout the casinos of Nevada.
And in the 1957 book Playing Blackjack to Win, Roger Baldwin, Wilbert Cantey, Herbert Maisel, and James McDermott known among card counters as "The Four Horsemen" published the first accurate blackjack basic strategy and a rudimentary card-counting system, devised solely with the aid of crude —what used to be called "adding machines.
Ken Uston, though perhaps the most famous card-counter through his 60 Minutes television appearance and his books, tended to overstate his winnings, as documented by players who worked with him, including Al Francesco and team member Darryl Purpose.
In the 1970s and 1980s, as computing power grew, more advanced and more difficult card-counting systems came into favor.
Many card counters agree, however, that a simpler and less advantageous system that can be played flawlessly for hours earns an overall higher return than a more complex system prone to user error.
Teams This article includes abut its sources remain unclear because it has insufficient.
Please help to this article by more precise citations.
May 2012 In the 1970s Ken Uston was the first to write about a tactic of card counting he called the Big Player Team.
The book was based on his experiences working as a "big player" BP on Al Francesco's teams.
In big-player blackjack teams a number of card counters, called "spotters," are dispatched to tables around a casino, where their responsibility is to keep track of the count and signal to the big player when the count indicates a click the following article advantage.
The big player then joins the game at that table, placing maximum bets at a player advantage.
When the spotter indicates that the count has dropped, he again signals the BP to leave the table.
By jumping from table to table as called in by spotters, the BP avoids all play at a disadvantage.
In addition, since the BP's play appears random and irrational, he avoids detection by the casinos.
The spotters, who are doing the actual counting, are not themselves changing blackjack card counting speed count bet size or strategy, so they are relatively inconspicuous.
With this style of play, a number of blackjack teams have cleared millions of dollars through the years.
Well-known blackjack teams with documented earnings in the millions include those run by Al Francesco, Ken Uston, Tommy Hyland, various groups from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and, most recently, a team called "The Greeks.
See also the Canadian movie and the American moviewhich was based on Mezrich's book.
The publication of Ken Uston's books and of his landmark lawsuits against the casinos, both stimulated the growth of blackjack teams Hyland's team and the first MIT team were formed in Atlantic City shortly after the publication of Million Dollar Blackjack and increased casino awareness of the methods of blackjack teams, making it more difficult for such teams to operate.
Hyland and Francesco soon switched to a form of shuffle tracking called "Ace sequencing.
This made it more difficult for casinos to detect when team members were playing with an advantage.
In 1994, members of the Hyland team were arrested for Ace sequencing and blackjack team play at in .
It was documented in court that Nevada casinos with ownership stakes in the Windsor casino were instrumental in the decision to prosecute team members on cheating charges.
However, the ruled that the players' conduct was not cheating, but merely the use of intelligent strategy.
Shuffling machines Main article: Automatic shuffling machines ASMs or batch shufflersthat shuffle decks, interfere with the shuffle tracking variation of card counting by hiding the shuffle.
Continuous shuffling machines CSMsthat partially shuffle used cards back into the "shoe" after every hand, interfere with card counting.
CSMs result in very shallow penetration number of seen cards greatly reducing the effectiveness of card counting.
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