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This article may require to meet Wikipedia's.
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November 2019 This is a list of characters that appear in the which consists of the series, series, and series, and.
His mother Sally married a man named Gabe Ugliano, to protect Percy, as his foul mortal odor would hide him from any monsters.
At the end of The Lightning Thief, Sally turns Ugliano into stone using Medusa's head.
Later, she marries Paul Blofis, whom she really loves.
Percy lives inUpper East Side, and is a fan.
He is Annabeth's boyfriend.
Percy has black hair and sea-green eyes.
The powers he inherited from his father Poseidon include the ability to control water, boats and ships; to create small hurricanes; to breathe and see clearly underwater; and to talk to horse-like creatures.
He is also a good swordsman.
Throughout the series, Percy uses a ballpoint pen named Anaklusmos Ancient Greek for "Riptide" for battle; the pen can change into a celestial bronze sword.
His fatal flaw is excessive loyalty.
He appears in The Lightning Thief, The Sea of Monsters, The Titan's Curse, The Battle of the Labyrinth, The Last Olympian, The Son of Neptune, The Mark of Athena, The House of Hades, The Blood of Olympus, The Hidden Oracle.
In the films, he is portrayed by.
In the musical, he is portrayed by.
Grover Underwood Grover Underwood is a satyr and Percy's best friend.
He appears in The Lightning Thief, The Sea of Monsters, The Titan's Curse, The Battle of the Labyrinth, The Last Olympian, The Son of Neptune, The House of Hades, The Blood of Olympus and The Burning Maze.
He has curly reddish-brown hair and fur, acne, and a wispy goatee.
His horns grow larger as the series progresses, and he must take increasingly careful measures to hide them and his goat legs while posing as human.
In The Lightning Thief, Chiron states that Grover is small even for his age: He is twenty-eight then, but because a satyr's lifespan is twice that of a human, he is still physically a teenager.
Grover is a very sensitive and nature-conscious person.
He is a vegetarian but also eats tin cans, furniture, and enchiladas.
Like all satyrs, he can sense emotions and "smell" monsters and demigods.
As the series progresses, his concern for his friends and pursuit of his goals lead him to take on leadership roles and become more confident.
Unlike his demigod friends, Grover is not an orthodox fighter.
Instead, he uses reed pipes or a cudgel.
In The Battle of the Labyrinth, Grover begins a relationship with the dryad Juniper.
In The Lightning Thief, he gets a "searcher's license" after getting Percy to camp safely, allowing him to search for the lost god Pan.
When Polyphemus captures him in The Sea of Monsters, he activates an empathy link, a psychic bond with Percy created a year before, allowing them some telepathic communication across great distances.
He uses this to guide Percy to his rescue.
At the end of The Last Olympian, he is named a Lord of the Wild and given a seat on the satyrs' ruling council, the Council of Cloven Elders.
Annabeth Chase Annabeth Chase is the daughter of Athena and mortal history professor Frederick Chase, from whom she has an extensive paternal family including Magnus Chase.
She is the girlfriend of Percy Jackson from book The Last Olympian She appears in The Lightning Thief, The Sea of Monsters, The Titan's Curse, The Battle of the Labyrinth, The Last Olympian, The Lost Hero, The Son of Neptune, The Mark of Athena, The House of Hades and The Blood of Olympus.
In the film adaptations, she is portrayed by.
In the musical, she is portrayed by Kristin Stokes.
Annabeth is tall, has blonde hair, stormy gray eyes and tan skin.
As a daughter of Athena, she is naturally intelligent and has a particular gift for strategy and.
She is declared the smartest girl in Camp Half-Blood.
At the end of The Last Olympian, she is assigned to redesign the damaged Mount Olympus.
Her fatal flaw isexcessive pride.
She is described by her teacher Chiron as "territorial about her friends", which is manifested in some moments of jealousy and distrust.
In The Lightning Thief, it is revealed that she suffers frombecause of Arachne, whom Athena turned into a spider.
Annabeth ran away from her father and stepfamily at age seven and encounters Luke Castellan and Thalia Grace.
They lived as runaways until they are found by Grover Underwood and taken to camp.
Annabeth remains attached to Luke and convinced of his goodness even after his decision to support Kronos.
Her attempts to bring Luke back into the fold are an important theme in the books.
Annabeth is crucial to the plot of each book in the Camp Half-Blood Chronicles, in various ways.
She even spends some time in Tartarus with Percy and Bob the Titan during The House of Hades.
At the end of the series, she and Percy plan to finish high school in New York and then attend college in New Rome.
In The Hidden Oracle, Percy states that Annabeth had gone to Boston for "some family emergency" — searching for her cousin Magnus Chase.
Annabeth's appearances in crossover shorts with The Kane Chronicles, and in Magnus Chase and the Gods of Asgard make her the only character besides Percy Jackson to have appeared in all three of the Greco-Roman, Egyptian, and Norse mythology series by author Rick Riordan.
Her main weapon is a short celestial bronze knife given to her by Luke.
After losing it in The House of Hades, she uses a drakon-bone sword given to her by the giant Damasen.
She also uses Sadie Kane's wand when it turned into a dagger like the one Luke gave her.
Annabeth owns an invisibility cap she got from her mother.
At the end of The Battle of the Labyrinth, Daedalus gives Annabeth his incredibly advanced laptop which she loses in Tartarus.
In the third book of Magnus Chase series, Annabeth is wearing a shirt.
Luke Castellan Luke Castellan was a 19-year-old son of Hermes and May Castellan.
He appears in The Lightning Thief, The Sea of Monsters, The Titan's Curse, The Battle of the Labyrinth and The Last Olympian.
In the films, he is portrayed by.
In the musical, he is portrayed by James Hayden Rodriguez.
Introduced as the friendly head counselor of the Hermes cabin, Luke is soon revealed to serve Kronos.
He is resentful of his father, who adhered to the gods' policy of non-interference despite May Castellan's mental illness.
He ran away from home young and eventually arrived at camp.
After the loss of Thalia, a failed quest and continued silence from Hermes, his ongoing resentment turns into this web page strong hatred of Hermes and the other gods.
Though described by those who knew him before joining Kronos as a nice guy, he later becomes moody and violent.
Though Luke originally serves Kronos willingly, the horrors he witnesses during the Battle of Manhattan convince him to fight against his former master, eventually committing suicide to stop the Titan.
When he dies, Luke reiterates what Ethan Nakamura tells Percy earlier: Unclaimed children and unrecognized gods deserve more respect than they have been given.
Luke is described as handsome with sandy hair, blue eyes, and a long scar on his cheek given to him by Ladon.
Besides the ability to open locks with his mind inherited by his father, he is first and foremost an excellent swordsman.
He even receives a sword named "Backbiter" from Kronos at the end of The Lightning Thief.
It is later reforged as Kronos's scythe and has the ability to harm both mortals and immortals.
From Halcyon Green, he receives a diary he later entrusts to Chiron, and a celestial bronze knife he later gives to Annabeth with a promise to always remain her family.
From his father he receives a pair of magic flying shoes, which he later curses and gives to Percy.
Just before giving himself over completely to host the spirit of Kronos, Luke bathes in the River Styx and obtains the invincibility of Achilles.
Thalia Grace Thalia Grace is the daughter of Zeus and Beryl Grace, a TV starlet Zeus met.
She is seven years older than her brother Jason Grace.
She appears in The Lightning Thief, The Sea of Monsters, The Titan's Curse, The Last Olympian, The Lost Hero,The Blood of Olympus and the Dark Prophecy.
In the films, she is portrayed by.
Due to her mother's abusive nature, Thalia had considered leaving home since she was little, but stays to protect Jason.
When Jason is apparently killed during a visit to Sonoma in actuality, he is just presented to HeraThalia finally runs away and stays with Luke and Annabeth until they meet Grover when she is 12.
When they reach camp, Hades sends a horde of hellhounds that Thalia holds off, she gives her life for her comrades, which arrive at camp quite unharmed.
Zeus pities her and turns her into a pine tree.
Her spirit then provides a magical barrier that protects the camp until seven years later when it is purged from the pine tree by the.
At the end of The Titan's Curse, she becomes the lieutenant of the Hunters of Artemis, a band of immortal female archers who serve the goddess Artemis, which freezes her age the night before her 16th birthday.
Thalia has blue eyes, spiky black hair, black eyeliner and punk style clothing.
Annabeth and Chiron remark her personality and character traits like her bravery and loyalty being very similar to Percy's.
She also shares some traits with her father, such as pride, confidence, and reactions to betrayal or contradiction, and is an incredibly skilled warrior, willing to attack even Luke, who was known as the best swordsman of the last 300 years.
Thalia's weapons are the shield Aegis disguised as a silver bracelet, and a spear disguised as a.
After The Titan's Curse, she also uses a bow and hunting knives.
Her main "power" is the ability to summon lightning and generate electric shocks.
In The Titan's Curse, it is revealed that she has an ironic.
In The Lost Hero, she embraces Jason for the first time in years, only to learn that he had lost his memory.
Tyson In The Sea of Monsters, Tyson is introduced as Percy's bullied, childish friend.
When Percy is forced to take him to camp, it is revealed that he is a baby Cyclops and a son of Poseidon, making him Percy's half brother.
He appears in The Sea of Monsters, The Titan's Curse, The Battle of the Labyrinth, The Last Olympian, The Son of Neptune, The Mark of Athena and The Blood of Olympus.
In the films, he is portrayed by.
Tyson is tall with unkempt teeth and fingernails, and brown hair and eye.
He is mentally about 8 years old, but very intelligent and compassionate.
As a son of Poseidon, he has some of Percy's powers.
As a Cyclops, he is immune to fire and has super strength, an uncanny ability to mimic voices, enhanced senses, and understands the "old tongue" the language spoken by Gaia to her first children.
Tyson also becomes an excellent smith with help from Charles Beckendorf.
In The Last Olympian, he proves himself to be a capable fighter and is named a general of Poseidon's armies.
Percy is at first resentful of him as a brother, while Annabeth is openly hostile towards him because she was almost killed by a cyclops, but both accept him after they get to know him better during a quest to the Sea of Monsters.
Tyson is close with several characters and magical creatures in the series, including Rainbow the hippocampus, the hellhound Mrs O'Leary and the harpy Ella, who eventually becomes his girlfriend.
In The Battle of the Labyrinth, Tyson is revealed to be afraid of satyrs, including Grover, he manages to conquer this fear after a quest, and befriends him.
Nico Di Angelo Nico Di Angelo is first seen in The Titan's Curse, as an unclaimed demigod rescued by Percy, Annabeth, Thalia, and Grover.
At the end of the novel, it is revealed that Nico is a son of Hades.
He appears in The Titan's Curse, The Battle of the Labyrinth, The Last Olympian, The Son of Neptune, The Mark of Athena, The House of Hades, The Blood of Olympus and The Hidden Oracle.
The character Nico was named after one of Riordan's former students.
Though he appears to be ten years old, in reality, he and his elder sister Bianca were born in the 1930s.
After Zeus killed their mother Maria, daughter of an Italian diplomat, whilst trying to kill the children, Hades wiped out their memories and took them to Lotus Hotel, a place in Las Vegas where they get stuck in time.
He is a native of and can speak.
Nico is initially depicted as cheerful and childish, with olive skin and dark hair, read more enjoys playing Mythomagic a mythology-themed card game similar to.
After Bianca's death, he becomes moody and secretive.
He becomes angry at Percy, who swore to protect Bianca, but later forgives him.
Afterwards, he lived in the Underworld with Hades, where he becomes pale and shaggy-haired and begins wearing dark clothing.
Nico, despite being very powerful, is extremely lonely, much like his father.
He makes nearby people uncomfortable, partially due to his unnerving weapon of choice: a sword made of iron cooled in the Styx "Stygian iron"capable of absorbing monsters' essences rather than banishing them to Tartarus.
Until meeting Cupid in The House of Hades, Nico struggles hiding his homosexuality.
During The Blood of Olympus, Nico, Reyna and Hedge transport the Athena Parthenos to Camp Half-Blood.
Between The Blood of Olympus and The Hidden Oracle, he begins a relationship with Will Solace after admitting to Percy that he had a crush on him.
Nico's suggestion that Percy takes on the curse of Achilles and his work to convince Hades to fight in The Last Olympian is crucial to the Olympians' success and earn him a short bout of fame.
He is privy to the fact that there were two camps, one Greek and one Roman, before The Lost Hero, making him an important liaison between the two groups in the latter series.
He brings his half sister Hazel back from the dead and establishes her at Camp Jupiter.
At the end of The Son of Neptune, Nico travels through Tartarus to find the monstrous side of the Doors of Death, an experience which leaves him haunted and weak.
In The Blood of Olympus, he nearly dies several times while "shadow-traveling", which involves melting into shadows and teleporting himself to different places.
His sister whom he brought back from the dead, who goes by the name Hazel Levesque, is the daughter of Hades' Roman identity Pluto.
Rachel Elizabeth Dare Rachel is a mortal girl who can see through the Mist, the force that obscures gods and monsters from most mortals.
Her father, Will Dare, is a rich businessman, but Rachel doesn't care.
She first meets Percy in The Titan's Curse at the Hoover Dam.
In The Battle of the Labyrinth, she guides Annabeth and Percy by through the Labyrinth to Daedalus's workshop.
It is hinted that she has some romantic feelings for Percy, Annabeth notices this and becomes jealous.
In The Last Olympian, she has strange visions and becomes the new Oracle of Delphi.
Her first act as the Oracle is to deliver the next Great Prophecy, setting the plot of the Heroes of Olympus series.
She is contacted by Annabeth in The House of Hades to ask for Reyna's assistance to bring the Athena Parthenos back to Camp Half-Blood.
Following the loss of Delphi to Python, as revealed in The Hidden Oracle, Rachel stops visiting camp and begins a frenzied attempt to regain her foresight, not helped by Apollo's disappearance.
Once informed of Apollo's arrival, Rachel returns and learns that not only Delphi is lost, but also three other Oracles, Only Rhea's Dodonian Oracle is still applieable.
She becomes upset upon learning of the existence of other Oracles, as Apollo hasn't told her before.
She has red hair and freckles, is skilled at painting and drawing, with both feet and hands, and occasionally shown as a non-ADHD foil for her demigod teammates.
Percy remarks on her ability to stand still for a long time at a charity event.
Due to her power of foresight, Rachel knows a great deal of knowledge before she learns it herself, during her meeting with Reyna, she states Reyna's full name, something only Reyna's best friends know.
Clarisse LaRue A daughter of Ares and the former lead counselor of the Ares cabin at Camp Half-Blood, Clarisse is hot-tempered, courageous, strong, an incredible fighter, usually using an electric spear given to her by Ares, and a good military strategist.
She can be stubborn and overconfident, much like her father.
Despite their similarities, Clarisse has a fear of her father and his anger at her if she should ever disappoint him.
This, along with a strong sense of honor and pride, often motivates her actions.
She also fears the because of what happened to her boyfriend Chris Rodriguez before she saved him.
She is aggressive towards most demigods, including Percy, though she does respect and make friends with a few, including Percy, Annabeth, and Silena Beauregard.
Clarisse makes frequent appearances throughout the novels.
In The Sea of Monsters, Clarisse is given the quest to find the.
She is a main character in the short story "Percy Jackson and the Stolen Chariot" published in.
In The Last Olympian, Clarisse initially sits out the war for Olympus due to a personal feud.
Enraged after the loss of her friend Silena, she later joins the battle with a fury reminiscent of her father's, slaying a singlehandedly and receiving the blessing of Ares.
In The Blood of Olympus, Clarisse leads the Greeks in battle to defend the camp.
In The Hidden Oracle, it is stated that Clarisse has gone to attend the and her role as counselor is taken by her half-brother Sherman Yang.
She appears in The Lightning Thief, The Sea of Monsters, The Battle of the Labyrinth, The Last Olympian, The Mark of Athena, The House of Hades and The Blood of Olympus.
In the film adaptations, she is portrayed by.
In the musical, she is portrayed by Sarah Beth Pfeifer.
Calypso is the daughter of the titan Atlas who is imprisoned on the island of for supporting her father during the first titan war.
She first appears in The Battle of the Labyrinth, where she nurses Percy back to health.
She falls in love with Percy and is heartbroken when he has to leave.
Percy asks the source to release her at the end of The Last Olympian, but she is still residing there when Leo becomes trapped on Ogygia in The House of Hades.
She ends up falling in love with him.
After Leo escapes, he swears on the River that he will return for Calypso.
At the end of The Blood of Olympus, Leo gets back to Ogygia and frees Calypso.
In The Hidden Oracle, Calypso comes to Camp Half-Blood with Leo and reveals that, due to her choice to leave Ogygia, she has become a mortal.
She accompanies Leo and Apollo in the latter's quest to find the Oracles and stop the Three Emperors from conquering North America.
Despite this, the two secretly attempt to find a normalcy for their lives and later announce to Apollo that they are going to settle inalthough they will continue to help him anyway they can.
At the end of The Dark Prophecy, Calypso stays at the Waystation, while Leo goes to warn Camp Jupiter of an impending invasion and Apollo travels with Meg to search for the Erythaean Sybil.
As a sorceress, Calypso can command wind spirits to do her bidding.
She loses most of her control of them when she gives up her immortality; however, she is still capable of summoning them to a degree, though by consuming more power than usual.
Also, due to spending a long time at Ogygia, she has mastered sewing and lock-picking, which she uses while finding the gryphons at Indianapolis Zoo.
Introduced in The Heroes of Olympus Leo Valdez Leo Valdez is a son of Hephaestus.
He likes to joke around and is very humorous.
Though he does this mostly to keep himself happy and not too caught up in his tragic past.
He is described as having curly black hair, brown eyes, a cheerful face, a slim build, and a mischievous smile.
He is and speaks Spanish and machine.
Leo has the ability to create and manipulate fire, a skill no child of Hephaestus has had for 400 years.
He also has a severe even in demigod standards.
As an excellent mechanic, he repairs a bronze dragon running wild in the camp's woods, naming it Festus that means "Happy" in Latin.
Inspired by a blueprint in Bunker 9, an abandoned bunker in the camp's woods, and a picture he drew in his kindergarten time, he also creates the Argo II, the ship the Seven Demigods sail on to reach Greece.
When Leo was eight, Gaia tricked him into burning down his mother Esperanza's machine shop in resulting in her death.
Leo's remaining family blamed him for killing her and left him a foster child and runaway.
He meets Jason and Piper, his two best friends, at the Wilderness school in Nevada.
Leo uses his sarcasm and wit to hide his feelings, especially in regards of causing his mother's death.
He sometimes thinks of himself as a seventh wheel, though he proves no less important or skilled than the others.
In The Mark of Athena, Hazel learns her former boyfriend, Sammy, was Leo's great-grandfather.
Until he falls in love with Calypso in The House of Hades, Leo falls for almost every girl he meets such as the snow goddess Khione, who turned out to be working against them.
In The Blood of Olympus, Leo sacrifices himself to annihilate Gaia and dies in the process, but is brought back to life using the Physician's Cure and returns for Calypso on her island.
Following his resurrection, Leo goes on a journey with Calypso.
As Leo is included in the prophecy of the Grove of Dodona, he and Calypso accept the task to accompany Apollo on his quests in The Hidden Oracle and The Dark Prophecy, where he announces that he and Calypso will be living at the Waystation.
When the prophecy of Trophonius requires that someone must warn Camp Jupiter from an invasion, Leo does the task alone.
Piper McLean Piper McLean is a daughter of Aphrodite and the famous actor Tristan McLean.
She is fifteen in The Lost Hero.
Unlike most children of Aphrodite, Piper is not particularly concerned with beauty or fashion.
Piper is on her father's side.
She is slim build and of average height.
Her demigod "powers" include "charmspeak" essentially, magical persuasion and the ability to speak French.
She is also occasionally able to see visions in her magic Katoptris Ancient Greek for "mirror"which once belonged to.
The dagger lost that power after the battle against the giants in Athens.
Piper's relationship with her father is mutually affectionate but strained, in part because of the small amount of attention he spares for her.
When she was young, Piper used her persuasive skills to "borrow" ask for in charmspeak things to earn a little of his time.
After he is kidnapped by the giant Enceladus in The Lost Hero and subsequently rescued by Piper, Jason, and Leo, Mr McLean's relationship with his daughter begins to improve.
Piper is also very close to Jason.
Though she later learns it was all a trick of the Mist, she was once his girlfriend while they attended the same school.
She works hard to recreate this relationship in real life when she comes to Camp Half-Blood.
She is also friends with all of the seven quest members in The Heroes of Olympus, especially Annabeth and Leo.
Piper's main weapon is her dagger Katoptris, though she later acquires a magic and uses it as a weapon.
After being captured by pirates in The House of Hades, Piper asks Hazel to teach her sword fighting, using a jagged celestial bronze sword taken from one of the Boreads.
In The Hidden Oracle, Nico mentions that Piper is currently attending school in Los Angeles, together with Jason.
In The Burning Maze, it's revealed that she broke up with Jason a few months earlier because their relationship was forced, and Piper did not like that.
Apollo, as Lester Papadopoulos, was confused because the cloud nymph, Mellie, had seemed angry at Jason.
This leads him to believe that Jason had broken up with Piper, but it was actually Piper who had.
It is later unveiled that she wanted to discover herself and who she really was without the pressure of being the daughter of Aphrodite.
The trick of the Mist that Hera used at the beginning of their relationship also contributed to the breakup as that meant that their relationship was technically "fake".
Though she is heartbroken when he dies by sacrificing himself to save her, Apollo and Meg from Caligula.
Jason Grace Jason Grace was a son of Jupiter or Zeus and the mortal Beryl Grace, a TV star of the 1980s, and the younger brother of Thalia Grace Hunter of Artemis.
Jason has few memories of his mother, who was compelled to give him up when he was two, but he remembers enough about Thalia to not be surprised when he sees her again, in The Lost Hero.
Thalia reveals that their mother told her that Jason was dead, and that this was what finally drove her to leave home, after she run away from home and found Camp Half-Blood.
In The Blood of Olympus, that Beryl Grace had become a mania, or spirit of madness.
He grew up at Camp Jupiter, the Roman equivalent of Camp Half-Blood, where demigods born to the Olympians' Roman aspects receive their training.
In The Lost Hero, he begins a romantic relationship with Piper McLean.
Jason is described as having blond hair, blue wizard of odds blackjack rules, and a scar above his upper lip.
He is of above-average height, source an athletic build and muscular arms.
By the age of fifteen, he has earned the rank of praetor and leads the legion with his longtime partner, Reyna.
Jason also coordinated the Roman camp's attack on the Titan force.
Of all the characters in the series, Jason is the one who struggles the most with the differences between the Greek and Roman perspectives.
Piper McLean describes Jason as very rule- and duty-oriented, though Terminus describes him as a "rule-flouter.
He chooses to consider himself a Greek, despite his parentage, and is later unable to command a legion of Roman ghosts.
During The House of Hades it is revealed that Jason has plans to return to Camp Jupiter to improve it with things he learned at Camp Half-Blood, such as giving the fauns the Roman equivalent of a satyr more rights and responsibilities.
Later, during The Blood of Olympus, Jason decides to consider both the Greek and Roman traditions as part of his heritage.
He becomes "Pontifex Maximus", a role which will see him travel between Camp Half-Blood and Camp Jupiter to build shrines for every god and goddess in the pantheon.
Although Jason and Percy immediately realize that it is best to work together, and become friends, their relationship is not without antagonism.
As Percy puts it, it is natural for two powerful demigods to wonder which of them is stronger after a fight.
Jason is a sword fighter like Percy, though they have different fighting styles.
Jason uses an Imperial gold sword, styled as a Roman gladius, which he can extend into a pilum a spear at will.
Jason also has power over air currents and can fly.
He can sense and control some air spirits and, like Thalia, call down lightning, which he conducts through his Imperial Gold weapons, and emit static shocks.
Once, he and Percy together summon a hurricane in Charleston harbor.
He is then killed during The Burning Maze, by Emperor Caligula.
While other demigods, such as Frank, are rescued in later books, it seems that no such care was applied to Jason.
Hazel Levesque Hazel Levesque is a thirteen-year-old demigod, a daughter of Pluto and Marie Levesque.
She first appears in The Son of Neptune, at Camp Jupiter.
It is later revealed that she has returned from the dead, assisted by her half-brother Nico.
She grew up in the 1940s inwhere her mother had a shop.
When she was born, Pluto offered to grant her mother a wish, but her request for wealth backfired into an ability to control andwhich both first view as a curse.
Hazel died after Gaea tries to use Hazel's power over earth to resurrect.
When Hazel's mother changes her mind about helping Gaea, Hazel buries herself and her mother under the earth, delaying Alcyoneus's rebirth and killing them both.
While Hazel's spirit is being judged, she gives up the chance to go to to save her mother from punishment, and they are both sent to the instead.
At some point before The Lost Hero, Nico finds Hazel in the Underworld while trying to visit Bianca di Angelo, only to find she has tried for rebirth.
He helps her escape to the world of the living and arranges for her to join Camp Jupiter.
Hazel and Nico are protective of each other, much as true half-siblings.
Hazel is described ashaving cocoa-colored skin, curly cinnamon-brown hair, and golden eyes.
Her legion tattoo is described as looking like a cross with curved arms and a head.
She is described as being very pretty, and is a strong female role model.
She eventually learns to manipulate her curse, manipulating precious stones and metals and sensing structures underground.
She is an accomplished horse-rider and skilled with a.
She tames the horse Arion, who eats precious metals.
She is unusually knowledgeable about the Underworld because of her time there.
During The House of Hades the goddess Hecate insists Hazel learn to manipulate the Mist.
Hazel becomes very gifted at this.
After the Second Gigantomachy, Hazel is promoted to the rank of centurion of the Fifth Cohort, succeeding her boyfriend Zhang.
Though she is much cooler than her boyfriend, she finds his inability to be cool endearing.
Frank Zhang Frank Zhang is a 16-year-old demigod, son of Mars and Emily Zhang, a "legacy" descendant of a demigod who dies during military service in.
He is taken care of by his grandmother after his mother's death, and makes his way to Camp Jupiter upon her insistence.
Frank's family descends froma grandson of Poseidon, who had the power to.
Periclymenus's descendants were sold into in China, and migrated to Canada many years later.
While battling Alcyoneus who is invincible withinFrank taps into his ancestral power and transforms into an elephant.
However, his combined power of being a son of Mars and having the ability to shapeshift makes his life very fragile.
The Fates tied his life force to a piece of firewood when he was a blackjack der bodyguard stream, so if the wood burns up, he will die as dealer rules blackjack ace the ancient Greek legend of.
The goddess Juno appears to his mother and grandmother while he is a baby to warn them of this fact, as he would be crucial to defeating the Giants.
In all his life, Frank has ignited the wood twice, which he can do simply by thinking about it; the first time is while he is finding his way to Camp Jupiter, in bitter blackjack online free with other players />The second time is when he, Percy, and Hazel travel to Alaska to free Thanatos.
Eventually, Frank entrusts the firewood to Hazel, and in The House of Hades, Calypso creates a fireproof pouch to contain it.
Frank has a meek disposition and is uncomfortable upon learning his father's identity publicly in front of the whole of Camp Jupiter.
He suspected himself a son ofgiven his skill with a.
On his quest in The Son of Neptune, and later during the series as well, he uses an enchanted spear given to him by Mars.
To Frank's surprise, the spear summons a skeleton warrior that defeats the basilisks.
Frank calls this skeleton "Gray".
As he has been residing in Camp Jupiter for no more than a year, Frank is initially considered a probatio, or rookie, of the Fifth Cohort.
Before the quest to free Thanatos, however, his cohort's centurion, Gwen, decides to retire and give her position to Frank.
Later, in The House of Hades, Jason surrenders his praetorship to Frank, who uses its authority and the Diocletian's Scepter to lead an army of Roman skeleton soldiers against the monsters in the Necromanteion.
Frank was described as 'cuddly' and 'fuzzy' and with a chubby, babyish face in The Mark of Athena, but in The House of Hades, after summoning the blessing of Mars to defeat a hoard of enemies, he transforms.
He is then described as being taller, more muscular, and without all his childhood fat.
Though now built like a professional football player, he is still as sensitive as before, and is embarrassed at his new appearance at first.
Initially, he was wary of the tension between Hazel and Leo, as Leo reminded Hazel of her old boyfriend, Sammy Valdez.
After Leo's encounter with Calypso, however, Leo became more relaxed around Hazel and there were no more signs of anything other than friendship, much to Frank's relief.
He then pursues a relationship with Hazel.
Reyna Avila Ramírez-Arellano Reyna Avila Ramírez-Arellano is a 16-year-old demigod.
She is a daughter of Bellona, a Roman Goddess of War, and the younger sister of of the Amazons.
She and her sister worked for during the events of The Sea of Monsters.
She is described as intimidating and a natural leader; she has glossy black hair and black eyes.
Reyna is generally more used to responsibility than other demigods, as she is a at Camp Jupiter.
Similar to Leo Valdez, she can speak both and Spanish.
Reyna is often accompanied by two magical dogs, Aurum and Argentum, or by her pegasus Scipio "Skippy" dies after their trip from to in The House of Hades.
The immortal winged horse, awards her the title of "Horse Friend", because of her kindness towards Scipio and others of his descendants.
In The Blood of Olympus she, Nico, and go on a quest to return the Athena Parthenos to Camp Half-Blood.
While shadow-travelling to New York, the trio stops in and visits Reyna's former house, haunted by the ghosts of her relatives.
There Reyna reveals that the Ramírez-Arellano family which includes and Captain has always been favored by Bellona.
Reyna's father an deeply loved the goddess, but his turned this love into an unhealthy paranoia.
When Reyna was ten years old, he became a mania, or an evil insane ghost.
When the mania attacked Hylla, young Reyna picked up the closest weapon and killed what remained of her father.
Reyna is reluctant to discuss the incident because is "unforgivable" in New Rome.
Coach Gleeson Hedge Gleeson Hedge is a satyr first mentioned in The Last Olympian, as the author of a distress call sent to Grover Underwood.
Like Grover, Hedge is also a demigod Protector; his proudest "recruit" being.
He disguises himself as a coach at the Wilderness School to escort and and later, to Camp Half-Blood.
He also serves as the adult chaperone for the Argo II and later accompanies the Athena Parthenos to camp.
Despite his often warlike and often overly aggressive attitude, Hedge is kind and understanding to campers in need.
He enjoys extreme sports and martial arts movies.
In The Lost Hero, Hedge falls in love with the cloud nymph assistant to and marries her; by the time of The House of Hades, Mellie is pregnant with a satyr boy.
Chuck, the baby, is born at the end of The Blood of Olympus, with Clarisse as his godmother.
In The Hidden Oracle, Hedge, Mellie, Chuck, Piper, and Jason are spending the winter in Los Angeles.
He had a child with Mellie named Chuck.
Introduced in The Trials of Apollo Lester Papadopoulos See also: Lester Papadopoulos is the mortal form of Apollo and the main protagonist of series.
In The Heroes of Olympus, Apollo's Roman descendant promises the god many things for blessing his prophetic skills, which leads to the Casino blackjack distraction from the true threat of Gaia, and to the resurgence of Python.
As a result, the Delphic Oracle ceases to function, effectively halting demigod quests, and Zeus punishes Apollo.
Zeus's punishment consists of making Apollo mortal, though he retains most of his personality and some more minor powers.
This punishment is revealed in The Trials of Blackjack der bodyguard stream />In his mortal form, Apollo's name is Lester Papadopoulos.
Following a meeting with two thugs, Lester encounters a demigod called who claims him as her servant until he regains his godhood.
There, Apollo has to adjust himself to a life of mortality and questing to regain his former powers and lifestyle.
Apollo is released by Meg after the revelation of her alliance with.
Lester is a 16-year-old teenager with curly brown hair, blue eyes, acne, and a flabby torso.
He is narcissistic, prideful, and arrogant, but does his best to not be a burden on others.
His mortal transformation makes him realize how miserable humans are in facing the gods.
In particular, he grows to deeply care for Meg and resolves to be with her despite the difficulties involved.
Meg McCaffrey Margaret Meg McCaffrey is a 12-year-demigod daughter of Demeter and the main character in The Hidden Oracle.
Her father was murdered by "the Beast" and she was subsequently adopted by Emperor Nero, considering them as two separate people.
Nero taught her the arts of a demigod and gave her a pair of crescent rings which can transform into sickles made of imperial gold, before giving her a task to lure Apollo into the Grove of Dodona.
Meg appears to Apollo at an alley of to defeat the thugs, also sent by Nero, to stage "robbery".
Meg demands Apollo's servitude and with his travels to Camp Half-Blood with Percy's assistance.
There, Meg displays unusual abilities even before Demeter claims her, and later goes with Apollo to search for missing demigods and the Grove in the nearby woods, having to endure a brief abduction in the process.
Her relationship with Nero is revealed at the climax, but her growing doubtfulness regarding Nero's ways, not to mention her already familiar friendship with Apollo, leads her to rob Nero of his chance on burning the Grove.
While she helps Apollo bring the Grove alive, she severs their bonding spell and leaves.
In the second book, The Dark Prophecy, she returns to Apollo and helps him fight Commodus.
Meg is described as small and pudgy, with dark hair chopped in a messy pageboy style and black cat-eye glasses with rhinestones glittering and shimmering in the corners.
She is Free-spirited and adventurous, inquisitive, and is also confrontational.
She poses questions with no subtlety, something that Apollo is annoyed with but later comes to regard as a unique trait.
Her abilities as Demeter's daughter allows her to connect better with nature as well as summoning a crop spirit called Peaches a spirit of peach treesa power that none of Demeter's other demigod children are known to possess.
Even though she is Demeter's daughter, not Ceres the Roman manifestation of Demeter she fights like a Roman, with two swords; one for offense and one for defense.
She is also known for her liking of unicorns in the fourth book The Tyrant's Tomb.
Hemitheaknown as "Emmie", is a retired Hunter of Artemis and caretaker of the Waystation.
She lives with her wife, Josephine, also an ex-Hunter, and their daughter Georgia at the Waystation in.
She and her sister were granted immortality by Apollo after escaping from the wrath of their father, King Staphylus.
She then joined the Hunters of Artemis and fell in love with fellow hunter Josephine, causing them to lose their immortality and to be kicked out of the Hunt.
Sometime in the 1980s, Josephine and Emmie gave up their immortality in order to grow old together.
In The Dark Prophecy, she saves Calypso, Leo and Apollo from the Blemmaye with crossbow turrets and lets the trio stay at the Waystation.
She comments on the similarities between Calypso and her half-sister Zoë Nightshade.
Triumvirate Holdings Triumvirate Holdings is a company that is led by three beings who are said to be the worst Roman Emperors in history.
They force other people to worship them.
During the Second Titanomachy, Triumvirate Holdings was responsible for giving Luke at the time under the influence of Blackjack der bodyguard stream and his allies the Princess Andromeda, weapons, helicopters, and top human mercenaries.
During the Second Gigantomachy, Triumvirate Holdings supplied Octavian with different weapons.
Rachel described Triumvirate Holdings click the following article be so rich that they make her father's company "look like a kid's lemonade stand.
The last in theNero is infamous for his tyranny and overindulgence in wealth and luxury with little regard to his subjects.
He click the deified Roman Emperor, who has survived through the millennia along with two other deified Roman emperors—the Triumvirate.
He forms an alliance with Python, who holds Delphi, while he himself controls the other oracles and plans to destroy Dodona.
As the Emperor of the East, Nero lives inwhere he recruits and trains homeless demigods, and controls the eastern third of North America.
He and the other two Roman Emperors have established Triumvirate Holdings.
As "the Beast", Nero killed 's father, but later adopted and trained her in demigod arts so she could eventually lure Apollo into the Grove of Dodona.
After Rhea restores the Grove of Dodona at Camp Half-Blood, Nero tries to force Apollo and Meg to burn the trees; failing at that, he sends a giant statue of himself, the Colossus Neronis, which originally stood in Rome, against Camp Half-Blood and Apollo and the Greek demigods defend the camp against it.
The last in theCommodus ascended as emperor at a young age and was known for his good looks and musculature, for which he was nicknamed the "New Hercules".
In later life, he became increasingly dictatorial and paranoid as he suspected that people would overthrow him.
He also had preferences for gladiatorial battles and would buy slaves and exotic animals to fight to the death.
Eventually, Apollo, with whom he had an affair, assassinated him while taking the form ofhis wrestling partner.
As a god, he reigned as the Emperor of the Middle, ruling from a base at.
He sends many of his men, including a kidnapped Georgie, to seek the Oracle of Trophonius, as he himself fears the oracle's reputed ability to drive its seekers insane.
At the end of The Dark Prophecy, he launches an attack at the Waystation, but is defeated by Apollo and his group.
Commodus manages to get away at the last second, having been blinded by Apollo's brief revelation of his true form.
Later, Commodus joins forces with Caligula and Tarquin to destroy Camp Jupiter but ends up being killed by Apollo.
He was born into the first ruling family of the Roman Empire, conventionally known as the.
Caligula was ambushed by his Germani guards which led to his mortal death.
Following this incident, he employed the Strix and the Pandai to work for him while his fellow emperors continue to use Germani.
Many years later, Apollo and Piper were brought to Caligula by his talking horse Incitatus as Caligula has the Pandai they subdued executed.
Before he can have Meg and Jason Grace executed, Caligula is stunned when Apollo threatens to commit suicide.
After Apollo stabs himself while Caligula kills Flange following the news of the attack on Camp Jupiter ending in failure, Caligula sails north with his guards.
Medea meets with Caligula and advises that performs a ritual before Apollo dies.
Caligula later fights Jason and Tempest on the back of Incitatus where he manages to kill Jason.
After making sure that he is dead, Caligula sets sail for the Bay Area.
Later, Caligula joins forces with Commodus and Tarquin to destroy Camp Jupiter but ends up being killed by Frank.
Tarquin is the last king of Rome and is depicted as a zombie.
He participated in the Battle of San Francisco Bay where he targeted the Sibyillin Books.
Tarquin was killed by Hazel and Diana.
Greek-Roman deities Twelve Olympians Though not all the gods who appear in 's novels are truly that is, gods who live onall Greek and Roman gods are generally considered to be a subset of the.
As such, most characters in the series refer to these immortals generally as the "Olympian gods", to distinguish them from the Greco-Roman and.
Zeus is shown prominently throughout the series to be extremely narcissistic, paranoid and hypocritical.
In The Lost Hero, under the influence of Khione, Zeus forbids contact between gods and mortals and closes off Olympus against the influence of Khionealthough he indirectly helps the protagonists several times on their quests.
As the primary Olympian god, his demigod children reside in Camp Half-Blood's biggest cabin, Cabin 1, although there is only one person who resides there at the end of The Heroes of Olympus: Jason.
In the film adaption, Zeus is played by.
As Juno in The Lost Hero, she is kidnapped by Gaea, and contacts Jason Grace to rescue her.
Previously, as Juno, she had sneaked out of Olympus and switched Percy and Jason to try to unite the Roman and Greek demigods, going against the wishes of Zeus as part of a plan to defeat Gaea.
Her cabin in Camp Half-Blood is Cabin 2, the second biggest in the camp, but because she does not have demigod children, it is empty.
In the film adaptation, Hera is played by.
In The Lightning Thief, he is suspected of having stolen Zeus's master bolt but is proven innocent after Percy recovers it from Ares.
Poseidon fights Oceanus in the underwater of the Titan war.
He remains there in The Last Olympian while the other Olympians fightuntil Percy convinces him that his power is necessary to defeat Typhon.
He was last seen fighting the Giants in the Second Gigantomachy alongside Percy and the other gods and demigods and mentioned Kymopoleia to the other gods as his daughter after Percy and Jason reported meeting her.
Though he is referred to as Neptune in the sequels of Percy Jackson and the Olympians when the Greeks and Romans are united, he has yet to appear in Roman form.
His cabin in Camp Half-Blood is Cabin 3 in which Percy is the sole permanent occupant.
In the film adaptation of The Lightning Thief, Poseidon is played by.
In the musical, he is portrayed by Jonathan Raviv.
She appears in one scene of The Last Olympian and is described as a beautiful goddess wearing armor, with black hair and small horns like crab claws.
He was seen briefly during a war council meeting in Poseidon's palace in The Last Olympian, click the following article the shape of a dolphin.
He acts arrogant toward Percy but respects Tyson.
Demeter's cabin in Camp Half-Blood is Cabin 4.
In the film adaptation of The Lightning Thief, Demeter is played by.
Persephone is the wife of Hades and the daughter of Demeter and Zeus.
Hades only allows her to visit Demeter, her mother, in the spring and summer.
She is said to be able to "soften" Hades and make him more merciful.
Unlike most minor gods, she sides with Olympus during the war against the Titans.
In the film adaptation, Persephone is played by.
Ares is a callous bully who is driven by either greed, aggression, violence or by the promise of violence.
However, as Mars, he dislikes war without reason and is one of the more important Roman Gods.
He is however still a bully and is all for killing the Greeks.
Percy first encounters Ares in The Lightning Thief, in which he drives a black motorcycle with flame decals and a leather seat made from human skin.
Percy defeats Ares in a sword fight near the climax of the book.
Cabin 5 in Camp Half-Blood is the home of Ares' demigod children; it is said to be surrounded by all kinds of warfare apparatus, including spikes.
In the film adaptation of The Lightning Thief, Ares is played by.
In the musical, he is played by James Hayden Rodriguez.
A son of Ares, Deimos only appears in the short story "Percy Jackson and the Stolen Chariot" in The Demigod Files, where he torments Clarisse, forcing Percy and Clarisse to cooperate to defeat him.
A son of Ares, Phobos only appears in the "Percy Jackson and the Stolen Chariot" story inwhere he torments Clarisse along with his brother.
He has the power to show people their greatest fears, but Percy and Clarisse cooperate to defeat him.
In The Blood of Olympus, a statue of Phobos is used by Piper to kill Mimas which fulfills the requirement of "one god and one demigod cooperating" in killing giants.
Athena first appears in The Titan's Curse, where she dislikes Percy and his relationship with her daughter, and votes to execute Percy due to his crucial role in the fate of Olympus.
She then argues that it was the most logical and wise choice.
As Minerva, she is a scatterbrain and lost.
She hates the Romans for reducing her to that and tells her descendants to kill the Romans.
She also leads her best children to the Athena Parthenos, although Aphrodite believes it to be subconscious, as Athena doesn't know where it is.
Her color scheme is grey, and her cabin in Camp Half-Blood is Cabin 6.
In the film adaptation, Athena is played by.
He serves as a supporting character in and The Heroes of Olympus series, and becomes the main protagonist of The Trials of Apollo series as a mortal named.
Apollo first appears in The Titan's Curse, where he transports a group of demigods and Hunters at the behest of his twin sister.
Later, he assists the quest group in rescuing Artemis from the Titans, even though doing so has been forbidden by Zeus.
At the end of The Last Olympian, Apollo chooses as his new Pythia.
After the war in the second series, the furious Zeus punishes Apollo with mortality for his failure to identify Gaea as a threat.
In the of The Lightning Thief, Apollo is played by Dimitri Lekkos.
Artemis is the daughter of Zeus and Leto and the twin sister of Apollo.
Artemis, true to her vows, is distrusting of men who discourages the companionship or value of men, and encourages maidenhood.
As a result, she has no demigod children, but recruits Hunters who serve as her companions and attendants.
Cabin 8 is her honorary home at Camp Half-Blood, but because she is a virgin, it is populated only when her Hunters come to visit.
In the film adaptation of The Lightning Thief, Artemis is played by.
At Camp Half-Blood, Cabin 9 is dedicated to him.
Hephaestus acts as a major ally of Percy in The Battle of the Labyrinth.
In The Lost Hero, he defies Zeus by speaking to Leo through his dreams and delivers the head of the mechanical dragon Festus for use as the figurehead for the Argo II.
In the film adaptation of The Lightning Thief, Hephaestus is played by.
Her appearance shifts constantly, always becoming more beautiful.
Cabin 10 at Camp Half-Blood is the home of her demigod children.
In The Lightning Thief, Aphrodite is played by.
In The House of Hades, Jason and Nico convince Cupid to give them Diocletian's Scepter.
He is the son of Zeus and Maia.
In the Percy Jackson and the Olympians series, Hermes helps Percy, hoping that he will be able to redeem Luke.
All unclaimed demigods are packed into Hermes' cabin, Cabin 11 because Hermes welcomes all travelers.
In the film adaptations, Hermes is played by in the first film and by in the second.
Dionysus was made the head of Camp Half-Blood as punishment for pursuing "an off-limits wood nymph" romantically.
Dionysus is portrayed as a cynical and unfriendly misanthrope who does not appear to have much respect for other beings, except for Ariadne.
He is a powerful god, but his powers are shown the least throughout the series.
He has two demigod sons named Castor and Pollux, both of whom are the sole inhabitants of Cabin 12.
Dionysus hates his job and has a low opinion of demigods, likening them to and his abandonment of.
Dionysus is played by Luke Camilleri in the first film and by in the second.
In the musical, he is portrayed by.
He is an isolationist who distances himself constantly from other gods because they do the same to him, primarily out of fear.
They continuously underestimate Hades who is in fact a very honorable and fatherly individual.
He is the father of Nico di Angelo, Bianca di Angelo, and Hazel Levesque as Pluto.
After the Second Titanomachy, Hades is granted Cabin 13, which is populated by his demigod child Nico.
In the film adaptation of The Lightning Thief, Hades is played by and is depicted as having a fiery winged form.
Like Artemis, she swore a vow of chastity so no conflict can spring up about her allegiance; as a result, she does not have any demigod child.
She is the title character of The Last Olympian, where she helps Percy figure out how to defeat Kronos.
She is described as preferring the shape of a young and softspoken girl with brown hair.
He had previously fought with Hercules where Hercules removed one of Achelous' horns; his other horn plays a part in the plot of The Mark of Athena in which it is removed by Piper McLean and becomes a cornucopia.
In The Last Olympian, he manipulates the winds to form a barrier around Olympus that protects it from air attacks from the Titans.
In The Lost Hero, he is portrayed as frenetic and unbalanced by attempting to fill all the requests of the gods and hopes to be made god of the wind.
He is first seen in The Lost Hero where Jason, Piper, and Leo ask for assistance.
He has two immortal children called the Boreads and is the father of Khione.
She first appears in The Lost Hero when she betrays Jason, Piper, and Leo to the forces of Gaea.
Calais is depicted as a big simpleton who struggles with words that have more than two syllables, while Zethes is shown to be heterosexual and to maintain an eighties hairstyle.
In The Lost Hero, the Boreads are seen with Boreas.
In The House of Hades, Khione and the Boreads attack the Argo II.
The three of them are defeated when Piper McLean charmspeaks Festus to life.
Piper also takes one of the Boreads' celestial bronze sword.
He appears in The House of Hades.
He appears in The House of Hades.
In The Blood of Olympus, Asclepius is first mentioned by Apollo on Delos, as the only person to have ever successfully cured death.
Apollo gives Leo, Frank, and Hazel his location in Epidaurus.
Piper, Leo, and Jason later meet Asclepius in the Asclepion.
He quickly diagnoses Jason with and gives him a pair of glasses.
Later, he uses the Pylosian mint and the Makhai to formulate the physician's cure and gives the trio instructions on its use.
Though she is never seen in the series, she indirectly helps Reyna to kill Orion by empowering her with her strength.
In The Dark Prophecy, she encounters Apollo, Leo Valdez, and Calypso at the Waystation where she tasks them to retrieve her pet gryphons, Heloise and Abelard, as payment for the secret route to the lair of.
Later, she contacts the Hunters of Artemis to serve as backup for the protection of Waystation.
The East River only appears in The Last Olympian, where he sinks Titan ships coming to attack Olympus blackjack der bodyguard stream half a sand dollar given to him by Percy.
She remains in Pandora's pithos as the only thing for humans to keep when other evils were released to the world.
In The Last Olympian, the pithos is given by Percy to Hestia by the reasoning that hope remains the safest in hearth.
In The Blood of Olympus, Gaea times her awakening to coincide with the Feast of Spes, a Roman festival honoring the goddess.
In The House of Hades, Percy and Annabeth encounter Eris alongside Nyx and Eris' siblings near the Mansion of Night.
In Percy Jackson: Sea of Monsters, Ganymede is played by.
In The House of Hades, Geras is among the children of Nyx that encounter Percy and Annabeth near the Mansion of Night.
Hebe is among the minor gods who allied themselves with the Titans; after the war, she is awarded Cabin 18 in Camp Half-Blood.
Her empousai minions and her daughter torment Percy in The Battle of the Labyrinth and The Sea of Monsters, respectively.
After the Titans are defeated, she reconciles with Olympus and is granted Cabin 20 at Camp Half-Blood for her children.
In The House of Hades, she helps Hazel defeat the giant Clytius in front of the Doors of Death in Epirus.
He only appears in The Last Olympian, where he sinks Titan ships coming to attack Olympus for half a sand dollar given to him by Percy.
He has Cabin 15 at Camp Half-Blood.
She is the mother of the demigod Butch, who makes a small appearance in The Lost Hero, who was the company of Annabeth in finding "the boy with one shoe" which was Jason Grace.
After the Second Titanomachy, she is granted Cabin 14 for her demigod children.
In The Son of Neptune, she meets Frank, Percy, and Hazel on their quest in finding the missing legion's eagle.
He has two faces, and each face seems to think the exact opposite of what the other face thinks.
She is bethrothed to Briares the Hekatonkheire, whom she resents.
In The Blood of Olympus, Kymopoleia works with Polybotes to hinder the demigods while sailing through the Aegean Sea after feeling abandoned by her father.
She is convinced by Jason to switch sides, because she wants to be feared and respected.
Together, they kill Polybotes.
She is nicknamed "Kym" by Percy.
In The Son of Neptune, Cato is seen at the senate meeting where Frank Zhang is made a Centurion.
In The Son of Neptune, he was first seen when Hazel was introducing Percy to him.
He is among the minor gods that appears as an ally of Kronos in The Last Olympian.
He puts the entire city of New York to sleep during the battle.
She appears only in The Demigod Files in the short story "Percy Jackson and the Sword of Hades", where she scares people by showing them the ghosts of deaths they regret.
Later Annabeth stumbles on a cult of ghosts dedicated to him, who look down on her for being a girl.
She realizes everything they are talking about reply, blackjack shuffling machine cheat thanks pictures, statues and the corpses of other dead children of Athena in the cult's chamber, and manages to escape.
She is also on the Athena Parthenos in Athena's hand.
Her children are in Cabin 17 at Camp Half-Blood.
After the Second Titanomachy, she is granted Cabin 16 for her demigod children.
Nemesis is seen in The Mark of Athena where she gives Leo a cursed fortune cookie.
Pan has been missing for over 2000 years and the satyrs seek him fervently.
After Percy and his friends find Https://yournaughtystory.com/blackjack/blackjack-online-spielen-live-dealer-card-counting.html in The Battle of the Labyrinth, he dies peacefully and releases his spirit to Percy, Grover, Rachel, and Annabeth.
In The Last Olympian, Grover carries on the legacy of Pan by sending teams of satyrs to clean up the world.
Pomona isn't seen in person, but a statue of her speaks in The Last Olympian, becoming irritated when she is mistaken for Demeter by Percy, throwing bronze apples at Percy and Will Solace.
In The Son of Neptune, Terminus is portrayed as and obsessed with order.
He guards the city limits of New Rome.
Terminus also helps Percy defeat the giant Polybotes.
In The Son of Neptune, the forces of Gaea capture Thanatos, allowing their dead allies to quickly return to life.
He resumes his duties after being rescued by Percy, Hazel, and Frank.
He guides her to the beginning of the Roman leg of her quest for the Athena Parthenos.
To Annabeth, he looks exactly like.
She was made an immortal and wife of Tiberinus after she was given a death sentence for breaking her chastity vow.
In The Mark of Athena, Rhea Silvia and Tiberinus give advice to Annabeth about the location of the Athena Parthenos.
She is described as looking like.
In The House of Hades, he cures Hazel and Nico from the poison go here the Katoblepones after Frank obtained a serpent to repair his chariot.
Her Roman counterpart Fortuna is celebrated by Camp Jupiter in the "Feast of Fortuna" on 24 June every year to decide what fortune that would befall the camp.
Primordial deities The are the deities that came before the Titans and the Olympians came into existence.
Gaia is the wife of Ouranos, and mother of the Titans, the Elder Cyclopes, the Hekatonkheires, the Giants, and Antaeus.
She is the grandmother of the Olympians, whose rule click the following article resents.
As of The Son of Neptune, she remains sleeping in the ground, but retains some consciousness and influence.
Like Kronos, she commands an army of mythological figures and monsters dissatisfied with the Olympians.
During The Blood of Olympus, she is defeated by Leo Valdez, Piper McLean and Jason Grace who lift her into the sky, charm her to sleep and then incinerate her with a mighty blast of fire combined with a shot from an onager by Octavian, a legacy of Apollo and the former augur of Camp Jupiter.
As a goddess she can't be killed, but like her son Kronos, her essence is scattered so much she will never able to form a consciousness again.
In The House of Hades, there were some Ourae that make up the.
When the Argo II tries to cross the Apennine Mountains, the Ourae there attack them with boulders because they are loyal to Gaea.
They hurl read article from their mountaintops where they severely damage the Argo II.
Leo Valdez has to turn the Argo II away from the Apennine Mountains in order to come up with a different plan.
She is described as a miserable-looking old woman who carries the Aegis shield with Medusa's head carved into it.
In The House of Hades, she offers the Death Mist to Percy and Annabeth, but later betrays them by luring them into Nyx's territory and trying to kill them with poison.
In anger, Percy manipulates the poison back at Akhlys, causing her to run away in fear.
This is the first time that Annabeth sees the darker part of Percy's personality.
In The Mark of Athena, Keto appears as a girl named "Kate" who is encountered in Phorcys' aquarium in Atlanta.
When Gleeson Hedge discovers Phorcys' ruse, he frees Percy and Frank after knocking "Kate" out.
After Percy, Gleeson, and Frank escape from the click at this page, Keto sends a skolopendra shrimp monster - one of her children after them.
In The House of Hades, Percy and Annabeth accidentally wander into Nyx's territory and try to pose as tourists guided by a brochure that does not mention Nyx.
Angered, Nyx shows just how important she is and summons her children, who emit pitch-black darkness that even Nyx herself cannot see through it.
Before she can catch them, the couple leave through the Mansion of Night.
Nyx is described by Annabeth to be "as tall as the Athena Parthenos, but very much alive.
When Gaea gave birth to the Elder Cyclopes and the Hekatonkheires, Ouranos hurled them into the pits of Tartarus because of their ugly appearances.
Kronos later castrated Ouranos before cutting him to pieces.
Ouranos then cursed Kronos, stating that his child would come to overthrow him just as he had.
Not much is mentioned about Ouranos afterwards.
In Percy Jackson's Greek Gods, Percy Jackson describes Ouranos to be tall and muscular with long dark hair and his skin changing depending on if it is day or night.
In The Mark of Athena, he and Keto run an aquarium inwhich contains many rare.
Following a "VIP" tour, Phorcys traps Percy and Frank who had turned into a golden koi fish in a tank to fight each other.
This attracts the attention of Gleeson Hedge, who manages to break the glass tank as they escape promising to return and free the sea creatures that Phorcys has in captivity.
Taking oaths under Styx' name binds people into a contract; breaching them will mean consequences, oftentimes misery, for them.
While multiple people have sworn under Styx' name, Styx herself does not appear until The Dark Prophecy, where she appears in Apollo's vision threatening him with punishment for breaking his oath of not playing music or practicing archery until he regains his immortality.
Through Gaea, Tartarus fathered Typhon and the Giants.
His real form is the whole Tartarus itself, but he personifies himself in a form that stands several feet tall with a face of a swirling vortex and a voice that makes it seem going inward, rather than outward.
In The House of Hades, the personification of Tartarus appears in physical form where he makes a remark about Gaea's awakening.
Annabeth and Percy fight Tartarus until Iapetus Bob and Damasen sacrifice themselves so that Percy and Annabeth can get out of Tartarus.
Titans The are the children of Gaea and Ouranos.
Most of them fought against the Gods during the Titanomachy which ended with the Gods winning.
He is the father of all the elder Olympians, as well as Chiron.
He fights with a with a six-foot-long magical blade that can harm both gods and mortals and was used to dismember his father Ouranos.
Kronos is initially trapped in Tartarus, but eventually escapes to possess Luke Castellan.
In this form, he personally leads the Titan army against Olympus.
He is finally defeated by his own host, in fulfillment of the first Great Prophecy.
In Percy Jackson: Sea of Monsters, Kronos is voiced by.
He was shown to have a gigantic, demonic body along with superhuman strength and the ability to use parts of his own body as projectile weapons.
Unlike Kronos, Rhea loved the children that she gave birth to and even kept Zeus from being eaten.
Since Kronos' defeat, Rhea retreats tobut continues to keep in touch with her children.
In The Hidden Oracle, Apollo learns that an oracle that Rhea created called the Grove of is the only one yet to be conquered by Nero.
Rhea subsequently appears to Apollo to offer him advice.
In The Titan's Curse, Tyson reports that Aigaios protected the Princess Andromeda a carrying the Titan Army from Poseidon's wrath.
He is the father of and the fiveone of them being Zoë Nightshade, who is later disowned because she helped Hercules steal the golden apples.
Atlas was imprisoned on the mountaintop of Mount Tamalpais near San Francisco, forever cursed to hold up the sky.
He is extremely powerful and strong, even for a Titan.
He served as the primary antagonist in The Titan's Curse, but is mocked by the other Titans in later books for his failure.
He does not participate in Kronos's final assault.
In The Titan's Curse, Apollo mentions that Helios and Selene faded when the Romans took over and his role was given to him.
In The Burning Maze, Medea summons her grandfather from the depths of Tartarus so that she can absorb his power alongside the essence of Apollo and make Caligula the new God of the Sun.
Helios is summoned again to fight Apollo, Piper, and Meg.
When Medea is defeated, Helios goes supernova.
When Apollo encounters Helios in the burning maze, Apollo promises to free him from Medea's control in exchange that he lets them pass.
After Piper kills Medea and frees Helios from his prison, Apollo persuades Helios to hold his rage and finally rest while planning to keep his memories alive.
Hyperion is the father of Helios andthe Titans of the sun andrespectively.
He appears in The Last Olympian, where he is clad in full golden armor and battles Percy.
He has all the powers of the Sun.
Grover Underwood traps Hyperion by turning him into a tree.
In The House of Hades, Hyperion is stopped from reforming in Tartarus by his brother Iapetus.
He and Krios are seen later guarding the Doors of Death.
Both are obliterated by the physical form of as a show of power.
First seen in The Demigod Files story "Percy Jackson and the Sword of Hades," when Percy drags him into the River Lethe, erasing his memory.
Rather than kill him, Percy renames him "Bob" and sends him to work for Hades.
In The House of Hades, he helps Percy and Annabeth escape Tartarus because of Nico di Angelo's kind description of Percy.
Annabeth is afraid that he will regain his memories by meeting with his fellow Titans, but Iapetus continues to help them and later sacrifices himself to fend off Tartarus while they use the Doors of Death.
In the outside world, Percy fulfills Iapetus' final wish by looking at the stars and saying "hello" for the Titan.
Bob befriends a small sabre cat while in Tartarus, as well as the giant Damasen.
In The House of Hades, Koios is briefly seen in Tartarus.
He mentions that his daughter had been mistreated by Zeus after "she bore him those fine twins" a reference to Apollo and Artemis.
Percy describes Koios as having Apollo's smile and Artemis's eyes.
Percy first sees Krios in a dream during The Last Olympian.
He wears armor decorated with glowing stars.
In The Lost Hero, Jason claims to have defeated Krios in single combat on located on in San Francisco at the same time of the events happening in The Last Olympian.
In The House of Hades Krios is seen with Hyperion guarding the Doors of Death.
Both of are obliterated by Tartarus's physical form.
In The Dark Prophecy, Lester has a vision of Leto begging Zeus to lift Apollo's punishment and allow him to return to Mount Olympus.
Zeus refuses stating that Apollo's real test is yet to come.
Oceanus is depicted as having the upper body of a muscular man with a long beard and horns and the lower body of a serpent.
He did not fight the Olympians in the original Titanomachy, but in The Last Olympian, he assaults Poseidon's forces underwater.
Oceanus is incredibly powerful and his intense battle with Poseidon lasts for days and creates storms and tsunamis.
After the defeat of Kronos, Oceanus escapes back to the depths of the ocean.
Like Oceanus, Prometheus prefers to fight for the more powerful side.
He supported the Olympians in the first but joins with Kronos in the second, in part because of Zeus's cruel punishment for Prometheus's gift of fire to mankind.
This punishment ended only with the heroa fact Prometheus uses to justify his claims to love heroes.
He is sent to negotiate Percy and Thalia's surrender during the Battle of Manhattan, offering them the spirit of Elpis goddess of.
He flees after Kronos's defeat, sending a list of excuses to Mount Olympus.
Giants The also called the Great Giants are giant-like beings that were made by Gaea and Tartarus to overthrow Olympus.
They were previously defeated by the gods and Heracles during the Giantomachy.
Each was meant to oppose a specific god.
They can only be defeated by a god and a demigod working together.
The Giants are described as very tall with -like legs and shaggy hair.
Gigantes with rust-colored dragon-like legs whom Hazel Levesque almost resurrects during World War II.
Alcyoneus eventually rises in The Son of Neptune.
He is invincible as long as he remains in his homeland which after his resurrection is Alaska.
Frank, Hazel, and Arion defeat him after driving him into Canada.
Gigantes with ash-colored dragon-like legs.
Clytius appears in The House of Hades.
He guards the living side of the Doors of Death in Epirus.
He is defeated by Hecate, Jason, Leo, Piper, Nico, Frank and Hazel.
Damasen had been exiled to Tartarus as he was peaceful not violent and for refusing to take part in the ancient fight against the gods and Hercules.
Percy and Annabeth encounter him in Tartarus when Iapetus Bob brings them to his lair.
When the personification of Tartarus arrives near the Doors of Death, Damasen confronts him with Iapetus so that Percy and Annabeth can escape back to the living world.
Gigantes with green dragon-like legs.
Enceladus was the first Giant to be reawakened in the Heroes of Olympus series.
In The Lost Hero, Enceladus is killed by Jupiter and Jason as the Giants can only be killed by a god and a hero working together.
In The House of Hades, Enceladus re-enters the world through the Doors of Death.
Gigantes that look somewhat more human than most of their brothers since they each have two snakes for legs which they usually conceals under their black pants.
Ephialtes and Otis are awakened in The Mark of Athena by Gaea.
Ephialtes and Otis manage to capture Nico di Angelo and were tasked by Gaea to kill all demigods of prophecy but two, whom they are to bring to her.
They fight Jason and Percy who defeat them with the help of Bacchus.
In The House of Hades, Ephialtes and Otis they return to the living world through the Doors of Death.
Messenger of the Gigantes with orange dragon-like legs.
Hippolytos makes a minor appearance in The Blood of Olympus.
Gigantes with charcoal-colored dragon-like legs.
Mimas makes a minor appearance in The Blood of Olympus.
In The Heroes of Olympus, Orion is sent by Gaea to hunt down Nico di Angelo, Reyna Avila Ramírez-Arellano, and Gleeson Hedge throughout their journey of bringing the Athena Parthenos from Greece to New York in attempt to stop the two camps from destroying each other.
He nearly catches them numerous times, but they either shadow travel away before he has the chance or are saved by allies such as the Hunters of Artemis and the Amazons.
Orion murders countless Hunters and Amazons, including Phoebe, but escapes with his life.
Much later, Reyna impales him through the heart with her dagger.
Periboia appears in The Blood of Olympus.
Gigantes with -like legs.
Polybotes attempts to destroy Camp Jupiter in The Son of Neptune with an army of monsters.
He is killed by Percy and Terminus.
He expresses a particular desire to capture Percy and make him watch as he kills Poseidon.
In The House of Hades, Polybotes returns to the living world through the Doors of Death and later convincing the goddess Kymopoleia in joining the giants but was again defeated by Jason Grace and the goddess Kymopoleia herself after Jason convinced her to turn sides.
King of the Gigantes with green dragon-like legs that are described to be the same color as.
Awakened in The Lost Hero, Porphyrion fights Jason and his friends.
Hera almost kills him, but he escapes.
He opposes the Fates.
Thoon makes an appearance in The Blood of Olympus.
Demigods The following characters all have one parent who is a Greek or Roman god or, more rarely, a Titanwhile the other parent is a mortal human.
It is common for these "half-bloods," as they are known, to grow up unaware that they are not entirely human.
They are frequently referred to by gods and other mythological beings as "mortals," though they are certainly more than human.
He is the son of Hecate and half-brother of the murderous monster Lamia.
Alabaster was one of the demigods who allied with Kronos in the Titan War in The Last Olympian.
He was sent into exile after the Titan War after refusing to stay at Camp Half-Blood.
He claims to have led his siblings to their deaths during the war against the Olympians.
He has several magical powers, which he channels through spells and magic writings.
She is a close friend of Julia, and the two are always never far from each other.
Chiron states that she and Julia have taken over the Stoll brothers' knack for mischief, following Travis' enrollment on college and Connor's sudden reservement that it caused.
The two girls harbor a crush on Apollo.
His mother, Latricia Lake, blackjack counting card strategy a music professor at in whose music theory class Apollo once took.
He is mentioned in The Last Olympian, where he is seen fighting alongside his brothers and sisters of the Apollo Cabin.
Austin's inherited talents are primarily musical.
She becomes a Hunter of Artemis, whom she attempts to rescue in The Titan's Curse, alongside Percy Jackson, Grover Underwood, Thalia Grace, and Zoë Nightshade.
She sacrifices herself to save the group from a mechanical prototype of Talos.
For a while, this causes Nico to resent Percy, who had promised to do his best to protect Bianca.
In The Battle of the Labyrinth, Bianca as a spirit helps Nico learn to forgive Percy.
Later in The Son of Neptune, she tries for on the.
In The Hidden Oracle, Billie is the only demigod of the Demeter cabin left in the winter season after the disappearance of her counselor, Miranda, until the arrival of Meg.
She points out Meg's parentage during her claiming, in which a sickle and grain, symbols of Demeter, glow above her head.
His Olympian parent is unknown.
He and Annabeth are the ones who bring Jason, Piper, and Leo to the camp at the beginning of The Lost Hero.
He is bald and muscular, with a of a rainbow on his upper arm.
He is killed in The Battle of the Labyrinth when he was stabbed by a demigod allied with Kronos.
In The Blood of Olympus, he is a part of the team sent to sabotage Camp Jupiter's onagers.
In The Hidden Oracle, Cecil is the first to kidnapped by Nero and strapped to a crucifix to be sacrificed to burn the Grove of Dodona, although Apollo and Meg manage to save him.
Like his father, he is a master smith.
He is African American.
He was in a relationship with Silena Beauregard, a daughter of Aphrodite, and is described as Mrs.
O'Leary the hellhound's best friend next to Percy.
He dies during an assault on the Princess Andromeda with Percy in the beginning The Last Olympian, around the age of 18.
He had plans to attend in the fall.
She is Italian and indulges in when she curses, which Apollo understands much to his dismay.
She has a rivalry with Damien, but is shown to be close friends otherwise.
Apollo has more than once expressed his interest on her, though he does it with Damien also.
He is often described as wearing a visit web page around his head.
Chris had joined Kronos and the Titans, but was turned insane by the ghost of Minos while on a mission in the Labyrinth.
Clarisse finds him and brings him to Camp Half-Blood, where Dionysus restores his sanity.
Chris later has a relationship with Clarisse.
In the film adaptation, Chris is played by.
In The Lost Hero, Annabeth consults him regarding Jason's memory loss.
In The Blood of Olympus, Nico Di Angelo sends a dream message to him to contact Thalia Grace.
The Stolls are known to be crafty and mischievous, like their father.
They are tall and thin, with stringy brown hair.
Both survive the Titan war.
In The Hidden Oracle, Connor becomes the sole counselor due to Travis attending college, something that he still has not gotten over with.
He picks on Meg after the latter pokes him in the eyes.
He is both a of the Fifth Cohort and a senator.
Dakota is often on aespecially when stressed; in moments of clarity, however, he proves himself a capable leader.
He has a heated rivalry with Chiara Benvenuti, although Apollo hints that the two are in a relationship at the end of The Hidden Oracle.
She bullies and controls her cabin members with her power of charmspeak, leading Piper to successfully challenge her for the lead counselor position.
She is also mentioned in The Serpent's Shadow of The Kane Chronicles as someone Sadie hates.
In The Hidden Oracle.
Apollo later frees him and the others.
In The Last Olympian, he learns Percy's Achilles weak spot, but instead of killing him, Ethan turns on Kronos.
However, his attack fails and Kronos kills him.
Before he falls to his death 500 feet from Olympus, Ethan tells Percy that none of the bad blood that led to the war would have been caused if the minor gods had thrones on Olympus.
At age seven, she started to show signs of her father's powers when the Oracle of Trophonius entranced her.
She was kidnapped by Commodus before the events of The Dark Prophecy.
Apollo frees her and realizes that she might be a daughter he does not know about.
Gwendolyn is killed in The Son of Neptune but comes back to life because of Thanatos's capture.
Her return prompts Mars to appear at Camp Jupiter and explain the circumstances of Thanatos's absence.
She retires as centurion the day after because she decided to attend the college in New Rome and was blackjack der bodyguard stream by Frank Zhang.
He is eight years old at the time of The Hidden Oracle, but very muscular.
Harley has been trying to locate Leo, his older half-brother, with a magical beacon ever since his disappearance in the aftermath of the Second Gigantomachy.
As per their upbringing, they are very competitive and refuse to be made second, hence why they are placed as co-counselors of the Nike's cabin, otherwise, as What online 21 blackjack free amusing puts it "they would've taken over the camp by now and proclaimed a dictatorship".
Apollo describes them as looking like the "gorgeous, ferociously athletic African nymphs" that he and Artemis used to hang out with at.
His godly parent is unknown.
He is severely injured during the Hepheastus's cabin's attempt to tame the bronze dragon later named Festus.
In The Lost Hero, he steps down and gives the lead counselor position to Leo, after Leo finds Hephaestus's bunker in the woods.
His godly parent is unknown.
Like chances calculator blackjack best friend, Alice, she harbors a crush on Apollo.
Katie strongly dislikes the Stoll brothers, who once put chocolate on the Demeter cabin's grass roof.
She is a major character in The Hidden Oracle, and is abducted by Nero.
Kayla's mortal father is a Canadian archery coach named Darren Knowles.
Kayla's inherited gift is archery.
She also appears in The Kane Chronicles.
Lacy and Drew Tanaka appear in thewhere Lacy is familiar with main character Sadie Kane.
Because of circumstances around her mention, she may be a daughter of Aphrodite.
He leads a team to attack a dragon threatening the camp.
He is killed by a giant in The Battle of the Labyrinth.
She is promoted to centurion at the end of The Tyrant's Tomb.
In The Blood of Olympus, she and the rest of her cohort defect to Reyna's side once the latter arrives at Long Island.
She is known for playing magical tricks on fellow campers.
He is described as a fearsome Hawaiian despite being the son of a love goddess.
As he is sponsored by Octavian, he remains loyal him despite his reservations of Octavian's decisions.
In The Blood of Olympus, he reluctantly follows Octavian's order to attack Camp Half-Blood, but later leaves him to his fate when the latter ignites an onager with his feet being tangled with it.
He was killed by Alcyoneus during an expedition in Alaska and the eagle of Camp Go here was stolen with him.
This tarnished the reputation of Varus' cohort, the Fifth, which learn more here not recovered until Jason's promotion to praetor over three decades later.
Varus' ghost appears to attack Percy in The Son of Neptune and again in The Blood of Olympus where he confronts Jason with his mother's mania and then mortally wounds him with an imperial gold sword.
He is described as very short, with a face that reminds Percy of a.
In The Demigod Files, in an interview with Clarisse, she mentions that she would want to pulverize Michael, thus stating that they are enemies.
He is an excellent archer like most of Apollo's children and uses sonic arrows which were given to him by his father.
He was presumed killed after leading a group of demigods in the fight against Kronos's army; Percy found his bow, but not his body.
She assumes the head counselor's duties in the winter when Katie Gardner hibernates.
She is dating Sherman.
She meets Leo in The Lost Hero.
She is mentioned on several occasions in the beginning and end of The Lost Hero.
She also helps plan out Harley's Three-Legged Death Race in The Hidden Oracle.
He is a student who attends accounting class at and joined Commodus to read more for his education.
After Apollo frees him, Olujime assists him in the defense of the Waystation.
His wrestler-like appearance attracts the attention of Apollo, who to his dismay later finds out that Olujime already has a girlfriend.
His status as a demigod is https://yournaughtystory.com/blackjack/10-blackjack-tables-in-vegas.html in the series, as he does not have connections to the established worlds of Greco-Roman, Egyptian, and Norse; instead, he channels his heritage, from which he inherited electrokinesis, and also practices the Yoruba and martial arts Gidigbo and Dambe.
His existence makes Apollo suspect that click to see more may be another pantheon of African gods beyond the Sahara.
He is from Brazil and is only able to speak Portuguese, although go here understands English.
He is able rejuvenate himself after particularly serious injuries, an ability which he inherited from his mother.
He survives the war against the Titans, though his brother dies in The Battle of the Labyrinth.
In "The Tyrant's Tomb," he and Meg gather Buster's horn shavings as one of the ingredients for a medicine to heal Apollo's stomach cut.
He marks Meg for target after the latter kicks him in the crotch, together with Connor.
Like the other children of Ares, he is easily provoked.
He is dating Miranda.
She is kind to Percy and befriends Clarisse La Rue after giving the other girl advice about her first relationship.
She served as a spy for Kronos within Camp Half-Blood, but wanted to quit when her actions led to the death of her boyfriend Charles Beckendorf.
Luke Castellan her into continuing as a spy.
In The Last Wizard of odds blackjack variants, she redeems herself by disguising herself as Clarisse and leading the Ares cabin into battle against the Titans.
She dies a hero's death and is given a funeral at camp.
In The Lightning Thief musical, she is portrayed by Carrie Compere.
The Stolls are known to be crafty and mischievous, like their father.
He and his brother survive the Titan war.
In The Hidden Oracle, he is shown to have gone to college, leaving his brother at camp.
He is a native ofthe son of an singer named Naomi Solace.
In The Last Olympian, he uses his father's healing gift to help cure Annabeth.
In The Blood of Olympus, Will is revealed to possess the ability to produce sonic waves in addition to his healing-related gifts.
At the end of the series, it is implied that he begins a relationship with Nico.
He refers to him as his boyfriend in The Hidden Oracle, after helping heal Lester.
Historic demigods In this franchise, different historic people are mentioned to have Greek Gods as their parents or are otherwise involved with the series.
Alfred is mentioned when Percy Jackson and Will Solace arrive at the Plaza Hotel.
It says that the Plaza attracted a lot of famous demigods over the years, such as the Beatles and Alfred Hitchcock.
In The Sea of Monsters, Annabeth Chase mentions Amelia when talking to Circe.
She was among the list of great female heroes.
In The Lost Hero, Aeolus mentions that he knocked Amelia Earhart out of the sky and that the gods still pester him about it while talking to Jason Grace, Piper McLean, and Leo Valdez in his fortress.
He is in modern times considered as one of the most well-known and one of the greatest of Hephaestus' children.
It is the wish among many of Archimedes' modern-day siblings to find the lost works of Archimedes.
During theArchimedes was killed by a Roman guard working for General who had given specific orders not to harm Archimedes.
While searching for Nico di Angelo with Frank Zhang and Hazel Levesque in Rome as seen in The Mark of Athena, Leo Valdez recovered the lost works of Archimedes.
He uses them to destroy the eidolons, possessive spirits working for Gaea.
He planned to take them to Bunker 9 at Camp Half-Blood to study them further.
With Archimedes' works, Leo hoped to save Camp Half-Blood from the Roman forces from Camp Jupiter.
According to Reyna, Tarleton ignored the Colonial leader Abraham Buford's white flag and his forces massacred Buford's men.
It is also mentioned that he was one of many Roman demigods who fought for the British during the while the Greeks fought for the colonists.
Instead of dying in his famous last stand, his ship landed on Circe's island where he and his crew were turned into guinea pigs for several hundred years.
In The Sea of Learn more here, Edward Teach is seen in guinea pig form.
While on a quest, Annabeth Chase used Hermes' multivitamins to turn all of the guinea pigs back into humans.
Along with his crew, he began to chase after Circe while Percy and Annabeth escaped with their pirate ship, the Queen Anne's Revenge.
In The Demigod Files story titled The Stolen Chariot, Percy Jackson mentions Frederic Bartholdi to Clarisse La Rue.
According to what Annabeth Chase had told Percy, Bartholdi designed the Statue of Liberty as a representation of his mother Athena.
In The Lightning Thief, George Washington is mentioned in the book as one of the few famous and successful demigods who survived outside of Camp Half-Blood and is depicted in one of the works displays during the Camp Half-Blood fireworks.
In The Battle of the Labyrinth, Chiron states that Harriet once used many clear-sighted mortals on the Underground Railroad hinting that the may have utilized the Labyrinth to help transport escaped slaves.
It is mentioned in The Lightning Thief that he, Orpheus, and Hercules have each been able to escape from the Underworld.
A Nereid said that Houdini "could escape even the depths of Tartarus.
He was mentioned in The Lost Hero as the one who built the where Lupa judges the newly arrived demigods to see if they are worthy of being trained at Camp Jupiter.
In The Sea of Monsters, Chamberlain is mentioned by Chiron when talking to Percy Jackson after having rescued him and his friends from the Princess Andromeda.
In The Battle of the Labyrinth, Thomas Jefferson is mentioned to be among the rotating members of the Judgement Pavilion where he is assigned to judge where Daedalus will be sent to after his death.
During the Battle of Manhattan in The Last Olympian, Annabeth Chase activated a statue of William H.
Seward in Madison Square Park.
It was the first statue she activated.
It was a celestial bronze statue on a red marble pedestal.
The William Seward statue was sitting on a chair, legs crossed, wearing an old-fashioned suit and a bow tie and long coattails.
Books were piled under his chair, and he held a writing quill in one hand, big metal sheet of parchment in the other.
The statue was one of many that Daedalus had created, to either attack or defend the Olympian gods, depending on which he needed to do to survive.
He continued waking the other automatons as he was instructed to do.
In The Mark of Athena, William Sherman was mentioned by Coach Hedge when he and the seven arrived in Atlanta calling him Frank Zhang's half-brother and mistaking the son of Mars as Greek.
In The Blood of Olympus, Bryce is seen by Nico di Angelo in a dream.
Despite being banished from Camp Jupiter by Reyna years ago for having killed his own centurion, Octavian allows him to return turning a blind eye to his cruelty towards the rest of his fellow cohort when he first joined the legion.
He is given his probatio necklace and is assigned to the Fifth Cohort.
In South Carolina, Bryce overhears Reyna's story of killing her father, and tries to capture her and take her to Octavian to charge her with the crime of patricide.
He then is turned into a ghost by Nico and forced into the Underworld.
She is descended fromwhich imbues her with the ability to shapeshift.
She believes Frank should spend more time studying his Chinese heritage.
In The Son of Neptune, she works as Terminus' helper at the security checkpoints at the New Rome town line.
She often hides playfully underneath Terminus' statue base.
Her parents died in "The Tyrant's Tomb" and Terminus adopted her in the end of the book.
He describes himself a descendant of Apollo in The Son of Neptune but Rachel calls him "son of Apollo" in The Mark of Athena.
He reads the for Camp Jupiter.
After Jason Grace disappears, he campaigns to succeed to Jason's position as praetor.
He is suspicious of the amnesic Percy Jackson when he arrives at Camp Jupiter, deducing he is a Greek demigod, rather than Roman by calling him graceus, the Latin for "greek".
Mocking him and attempting to undermine his quest.
When demigods from Camp Half-Blood arrive at Camp Jupiter, Octavian declares the Greeks invaders and urges the Romans to fight them off, believing the Greeks to be in league with Gaea.
His warmongering escalates further in The House of Hades where he violates direct orders from Reyna not to attack Camp Half-Blood after leaving for her quest to get the Athena Parthenos back to Long Island, leaving him in command of the Legion.
He is thin and blonde.
He is also said to "look eighteen but could probably pass as younger.
His foot gets tangled in the launching rope and he is launched along with the payload and dies in the explosion.
As his effort may have helped defeat Gaea, Octavian is hailed as a hero and his true actions covered up.
Mythological figures The following characters from Greek mythology appear in this series.
Most of them are the direct children of gods or Titans, but a few are mortals with such great power that they are able to influence the realm of the gods.
The ghost of Achilles appears briefly in The Last Olympian, warning Percy about the Curse of Achilles.
He was decapitated by Trophonius to spare the latter from being captured following a disastrous attempt to steal the riches of King.
His headless ghost resurfaces to deliver baby Georgina to Hemithea and Josephine at Waystation and later becomes a constant visitor of the sanctuary.
Lacking a head, he speaks by arranging the letters of Magic 8 Ball.
Percy and his friends meet him in The Lightning Thief.
He also states he does not like being confused with the centaur Chiron.
He likes Italian suits.
In the film adaptation, Charon is played by.
In the musical, Charon is portrayed by Carrie Compere.
He is first mentioned in The Last Olympian when Percy and Annabeth go to see the Oracle of Delphi in the attic of the Big House.
A pair of fuzzy dice is said to have been stolen from his car.
In The Mark basic strategy blackjack Athena, Chrysaor and his crew attacked the Argo II in the Mediterranean with the intent to sell Piper and Hazel to Circe, kill Jason, and then give Annabeth and Percy to Gaea.
Chrysaor battles Percy on the deck of the Argo II.
Once Chrysaor's crew abandon him, Percy surround him.
Chrysaor is knocked off the Argo II by Frank and Percy and Chrysaor falls into the sea.
A pair of fuzzy dice stolen by a demigod named Gus from Chyrsaor's are found in the Big House attic in The Last Olympian.
While she treated females at her spa, she turned males into.
When Percy was turned into a guinea pig, Annabeth used multivitamins from Hermes to restore him, and together they defeated Circe.
In The Heroes of Olympus series, it is revealed that Circe employed Reyna and Hylla after they left Puerto Rico and treated them nicely, at least until the pirates were freed and proceeded to capture the sisters.
He killed his nephew but escaped eternal punishment by casting his soul into automatons.
Athena branded him with a murderer's brand in check this out shape of a partridge.
In The Battle of the Labyrinth, Daedalus appears under the alias of a Camp Half-Blood worker named Quintus meaning "the fifth" in Latin.
Percy and Annabeth convince him to use his technical genius to help defeat the Titan army in the Labyrinth.
He then accepts death, willing to Annabeth his laptop filled with thousands of years of notes and ideas.
In death, he becomes the Underworld's architect and is allowed to visit Icarus and Perdix on weekends.
He appears in The Battle of the Labyrinth and helps Percy and Annabeth locate Hephaestus.
He gives his life to save Luke Castellan and Thalia Grace from the Leucrotae and his burning mansion in The Diary of Luke Castellan part of The Demigod Diaries.
Following his death, Zeus brought him up to Mount Olympus to live with him and he is engaged to Hebe.
Heracles was mentioned but did not appear in the first book series, usually when monsters that he had fought show up to trouble Percy.
In The Titan's Curse, it is revealed that Zoë Nightshade helped Heracles steal the Apples of the Hesperides and gave him a magical sword Riptide which he had forgotten to return, leaving her to be disowned by her sisters and him giving her no credit for her help.
Hercules appears in The Mark of Athena where he was tasked by Zeus to guard the and issues Piper and Jason a quest for permission to enter the Mediterranean Sea.
The right for him was contested between Apollo and Zephyrus, and when the former refused to share, Zephyrus caused an accident that led to Apollo's accidental killing over Hyacinthus.
His death is regarded by Apollo as one of his two greatest losses of his life, together with Daphne's petrification.
Upon his death, Hyacinthus was reincarnated as hyacinth.
To this day, Apollo is still haunted by visions of him.
In The Blood of Olympus, Jason posed as Irus to get close to the ghosts of the Suitors of Penelope.
He is among the people brought back to life by Gaea in The Lost Hero where his Golden Touch was restored upon him and his son Lityerses emerging from the Doors of Death.
It has been source that Midas has occasionally turned Lityerses to gold by mistake causing him to use the nearby lake to wash the gold off him.
Jason, Piper, and Leo come to Midas's mansion in.
He was initially polite before revealing his allegiance and turning Leo and Piper into solid gold.
Jason fought back against Midas and Lityerses and managed to restore Leo and Piper to life.
Nico consults him in The Battle of the Labyrinth, but Minos kidnaps Nico and tries to kill Daedalus, who constructed the Labyrinth for him.
When Daedalus later ends up in the Underworld, Minos unsuccessfully tries to convince the other two judges to punish Daedalus.
He had committed violations of guest hospitality, seduced his niece, plotted to kill his brother,and told the river god where Zeus had his daughter.
His major crimes involved cheating death twice.
The first where he tricked Thanatos into showing him how the chains worked causing Thanatos to be trapped until Ares freed him Thanatos being trapped displeased Ares since no one in battle could die.
The second time was when he complained to Persephone that his wife Merope did not give him a proper funeral and sent Sisyphus' spirit to the living.
Even when Sisyphus did not want to return to the Underworld, he was forcefully dragged back there by Hermes.
His punishment in The Fields of Punishment was to push a boulder up a hill.
When it got close to the top, the boulder would roll back to the bottom and Sisyphus was condemned to begin again.
He appears in The Demigod Files in the story titled The Sword of Hades when Percy and Nico asked his advice while Thalia pushes the boulder up the hill.
He does not really help them much, but he does say that he helped someone else.
He said that he told that other person to hi european blackjack gold see Melinoe.
Therefore, Percy and his friends go to see Melinoe as Sisyphus begs for them to set him free from his punishment for being here was a minor set-back.
He ended up there after killing his soncutting him up, and serving him as food to the gods.
His punishment in the Fields of Punishment was to stand under a fruit tree in the middle of a lake.
When he tried to pluck the fruit to eat, the branches of the tree rose out of his reach and when he bent down to drink the water, the level would retreat.
Tantalus became "tantalised" by having onyx blackjack 8 1 and drink close to him, but unable to enjoy either.
He becomes the activities director at Camp Half-Blood after Chiron is fired.
He appears in The Sea of Monsters as a minor character.
Even read article hired as the activities director, he could not eat or drink as the food kept evading him.
Tantalus is shown to hate Percy and his friends even more than he hates most half-bloods, yet shows favoritism to Clarisse, as when naming her hero when the camp was attacked by Colchis Bulls or when she wins the chariot race and throwing a banquet in her honor.
When Tyson is brought to camp, Blackjack der bodyguard stream insults and makes fun of him even when Tyson is claimed by Poseidon.
When the camp is attacked by a large flock of Stymphalian birds, Tantalus blames it on Percy, Annabeth, and Tyson's "bad chariot driving" despite that they were the ones who defeated the birds.
At the end of the book, his curse is lifted by Dionysus just before he is sent back to the Underworld as he attempts to take some food along.
None of the campers are sad to see him go.
After King Midas turns Leo and Piper to gold, he has Lityerses fight Jason before Midas can turn him to gold.
After Jason defeats Lityerses, King Midas tries to help him only to accidentally turn him to gold.
After throwing a rug over Lityerses, Jason summoned a thunderbolt that caused rain to come down on those who had been turned to gold.
In The Dark Prophecy, Lityerses is freed from his golden from by Commodus and goes to work for him.
He later defects to the side of the Waystation's inhabitants.
Jason, Piper, and Leo encounter her in The Lost Hero, where she runs a mall in Chicago under the name "M".
She becomes enraged upon learning Jason's name which he shares withthe hero that recovered the who left her.
Her magic causes Jason and Leo to become hostile to one another.
Realizing Medea is an agent of Gaea, Piper brings them to their senses and leads their escape before Medea can do anything else to them by blowing up the mall and killing her again.
In The Burning Maze, Medea returned where she is now working for Caligula.
When she engages Meg in a charmspeak battle, she announces her plans to take Apollo's essence, combine it with her grandfather's leftover power, and make Caligula the new God of the Sun.
Medea later appears in the throne room click Caligula asking him to perform the ritual after she trapped Jason and Piper in a tornado prison.
When Apollo stabs himself, Medea and Caligula rush to perform the ritual before he dies.
Her being focused on the ritual weakened the tornado prison enabling Piper to punch Medea.
When Apollo reaches Herophile's holding area, Medea appears and prepares to extract Apollo's essence.
Piper saves Apollo by stabbing Medea and pushing her into Helios' flames.
They inspired and presided over several creative arts.
In The Lightning Thief, the Muses performed on Mount Olympus at the time when Percy returns Zeus' Master Bolt.
As the gods celebrate, the Muses play music that sounds like anything you want, so no one argues about the music.
In The Titan's Curse, the Muses perform their music after the Gods decide not to kill Percy and Thalia.
According to Percy, everybody hears the music they only want to hear, like classical for the gods and hip hop for the younger demigods.
In The Last Olympian, a few Muses are shown playing some tunes on Olympus.
Their hearts were not into it because of Kronos' attack on Mount Olympus while the Gods were out fighting Typhon.
Nemesis puts a spell on him that causes him to fall in love with the reflection of himself in the water where he dies upon not being able to leave his own blackjack der bodyguard stream />In The Mark of Athena, Narcissus is encountered by Hazel Levesque and Leo Valdez at the Salt Lake in Utah where the demigods are looking for the Celestial Bronze which is needed to help repair the damaged Argo II.
When Narcissus realizes that Hazel and Leo have managed to steal his bronze plate which he uses to be able to admire his own reflection, he and a mob of nymphs runs after them trying to kill them.
There are five of them.
Four Oracles are associated with Apollo.
At the end of World War II, the oracle issued the Great Prophecy, saying a child of the Big Three Zeus, Poseidon, and Hades would determine the preservation or destruction of Olympus.
This caused those gods to form a pact not to father more demigods.
In Percy Jackson: Sea of Monsters, the Oracle of Delphi is voiced by.
In the musical, she is portrayed by Carrie Compere.
Later, he became guardian of an oracle which bears his name, reputedly the oracle that would drive its seekers into insanity unless proper rituals are conducted.
Regardless of his antagonism to Apollo due to his predicament, he asks his father to destroy the Oracle and himself, so Commodus would not be able to access it again.
She is resentful of the gods for punishing her by giving birth to Minotaur, while her husband, Minos, who caused the problem in the first place, enjoys the right as a judge in the Underworld for being Zeus' son.
She is allied with the giants and does a battle of sorcery with Hazel, who manages to trick her into entering an imaginary trapdoor in the Labyrinth.
Percy Jackson finds him in Portland where the Harpies are trying to steal his food.
Before he dies from Gaea making him choose the poisoned gorgon's blood from the offer Percy gave him, he reveals to Percy the location of Alcyoneus' camp.
He is a rogue thief and blacksmith who was previously defeated by Theseus.
Procrustes appears in The Lightning Thief as "Crusty", a Los Angeles mattress store owner.
He traps Annabeth and Grover on his beds and tries to stretch their spine.
Percy defeats him by using Riptide on him.
He had previously fought Theseus in the past.
In The House of Hades, Sciron and his giant turtle waylaid the Argo II on the coast of Croatia.
Like his fight with Theseus, Hazel defeated Sciron by pushing him off the cliff where he was gobbled by the Giant Sea Turtle.
When Odysseus returned, his disguised appearance spoke to Penelope to hold a contest where the Suitor that can string Odysseus' bow will become her new wife.
When Odysseus won the contest, he sheds his disguise and kills the Suitors with the help of Telemachus and Philoeteus.
In The Blood of Olympus, Jason, Piper, and Annabeth encounter the ghosts of the Suitors of Penelope on Ithica where they are now allied with Gaea.
When Nico was trying to summon Bianca in The Battle of the Labyrinth, he ended up summoning the spirit of Theseus.
Other Greco-Roman beings Greco-Roman humanoids Many of the beings and creatures of Greco-Roman myths are —in other words, they possess both the intelligence and some of the physical features of humans.
The vast majority of these creatures are friendly, such as nymphs and centaurs.
Unlike the majority of Greek creatures, these beings are also unquestionably sentient and tend to have larger roles in the novel series.
They were also the great-grandsons of Ares due to Polyphonte being Ares' granddaughter.
The two served as Luke's henchmen in The Sea of Monsters.
Some Amazons appear in The Son of Neptune where they are sent to their compound at Reyna's request.
They also run the billion-dollarwhich they use as a source of cover and revenue.
Though they are often confused with the Hunters of Artemis, the Amazons are not misandrists and like men just fine; they are just a very matriarchal society in which their male spouses are made to work in manual labor while the Amazons work as administrators.
In The Blood of Olympus, the Amazons collaborate with the Hunters of Artemis to protect Reyna from Orion, resulting in many casualties.
In The Son of Neptune, she and Lulu guarded Percy Jackson and.
She is a demigod daughter of Bellona and the Amazon Queen.
She looks a lot like Reyna with beautiful, glossy black hair and black eyes, long lashes, and a scar on her forehead.
She as her sister had the bearing of a swordswoman but stronger.
Hylla wears a black suit with a golden belt.
Reyna describes her sister as a "chameleon" because she is always changing.
They have similar personalities but Hylla seems more funny and "chill".
She was born in Puerto Rico and worked for Circe during the first series with her sister.
She also spent a year living with pirates and winning the crew's respect.
She had an awful childhood, basically she was always trying to protect her sister from their dad.
Her father was in the army and the whole Ramírez-Arellano family was favored by Bellona.
While worshiping her, Hylla's father falls in love with the idea of war and Bellona.
They have the two kids together.

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He has started distancing himself a little bit and link to take his own naps, but whenever Ben is awake Jackson can hardly leave his side.
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Plowboy, Officer, and Gentleman 13 2.
A Silver Star for San Juan Hill 37 3.
Against the Gong-Maddened Moros 53 4.
Promotion and Scandal 75 5.
The Problem of Pancho Villa 105 6.
The Empty Cage for Pancho Villa 121 Part Two: SOLDIER ON THE WESTERN FRONT 7.
A "Token Force" for France 143 8.
The War-Weary French 161 9.
Black Jack and His Nursemaids 181 10.
The "Valley Forge Winter" 203 11.
The Great Gamble 229 12.
The Jaws of Saint-Mihiel 277 14.
The Longest, Toughest Battle 299 15.
Victory, Peace, and Departure 323 8 CONTENTS Part Three: SOLDIER IN RETIREMENT 16.
Chief of Staff 347 17.
On the Shelf 367 18.
Muffled Drums-and Taps 387 NOTES ON SOURCES AND BIBLIOGRAPHY 395 SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY 413 INDEX 419 FOREWORD This is not an "authorized" biography of General Pershing in the sense that it was written with his family's blessing or encouragement.
His son Warren, however, did make available his personal recollections in his usual gracious manner and gave permission for examination of the Pershing Papers in the Library of Congress's Manuscript Division, which were admirably collected, indexed, and boxed only in the past several years.
No previous work on Pershing's career included these voluminous papers, diaries, letters, and journals.
My acquaintance with the general was limited to a few minutes' interview in his office when I was a reporter in Washington, and the city editor, who had a grisly sense of humor, insisted that I try to enlist his opinion of General Douglas MacArthur's dispersal of the Bonus Marchers, most of them men who had served under Pershing.
The general, of course, wouldn't talk.
He was grimly courteous, im- passive, and understandably eager to be rid of me.
The nauseating phrase, "No comment," had not yet come into common usage, but that was what his few curt remarks added up to.
He was see more expert at ridding himself of newspapermen, most of whom he disliked on prin- ciple, and a few minutes later I found myself out on the street, dis- missed with a grunt and a nod.
I didn't much like the old General of the Armies.
I had known Chicago gangsters who were friendlier.
Now, a quarter of a century later, I find him more understandable.
The aim of this biography is to do the same for the reader.
PART ONE SOLDIER ON THE FRONTIERS 1.
Plowboy, Officer, and Gentleman The two leading American military crusaders in Europe during the first and second world wars were men of strikingly similar background.
Both sprang from mid-continent America, from similar racial stock and much the same kind of hard-working, unpretentious people who had come west with the wagon trains and settled along the Middle Border.
But the times in which they lived, their differing experiences, and their own remarkably opposed personalities shaped them in diverse fashion.
Rarely has a general acquired the popularity of D wight D.
Eisenhower; his was the smiling brotherly image, agreeable, democratic, rarely stern or authoritarian.
He delegated responsibility whenever pos- sible, and his plans and decisions were formulated in the homogenized atmosphere of staff conferences and group thinking.
Supreme Head- quarters functioned along corporate lines; its natural habitat was the monolithic office building, and Eisenhower was its urbane and tactful chairman of the board.
Pershing, commander in chief of the American Expedition- ary Force, evoked no such enthusiasm at home or abroad.
Among World War I generals, a well-publicized paternalism was regarded as necessary equipment for high command "Papa" Joffre pulling the ears of his poilus and calling them "my children," Hindenburg gruffly rep- resenting himself as the massive father image of the German armies.
But, as a perceptive American war correspondent named Heywood Broun observed, "they don't call him Papa Pershing.
To the doughboy he was simply a hard-boiled, super-drill sergeant.
He didn't expect to be venerated by the men he 14 SOLDIER ON THE FRONTIERS sent into combat and death any more than their top kick did when he blew his whistle and shoved them into no man's land; nor would he allow the arts of publicity to be applied on his behalf and picture him as anything but what he was a practical, unsentimental soldier doing his job.
Instead of delegating authority, he kept his hand on every lever of the A.
He organized the American forces in Europe with himself as their model, causing one writer to observe, "When you stumbled upon a lost American doughboy hi a God-forsaken hamlet, his bearing, the set of his tunic, his salute, all authentically recalled the general who sat in Chaumont.
Even his oldest friends were given just one chance to prove themselves.
He accomplished what he set out to dobuild a modern, war-worthy American Army, keep it separate from the Allies, and help beat the Germans but few loved him for it.
The presidency was Eisenhower's for the taking.
With Pershing, even had he admitted to wanting it, it was a different matter.
Politicians who tested sentiment among his former soldiers and civilians at home to determine whether Pershing could not be propelled into the White House, much as Ulysses S.
Grant had been nominated through the political backing of the Grand Army of the Republic, found that both classes were as opposed to the idea of "Pershing for President" as the general himself professed to be.
Everything about Pershing seemed to be sternly and exclusively military.
He never softened an order with a smile, rarely with an ex- planation.
He did not expect popularity but demanded obedience.
Soldiering was the harsh profession he had learned while galloping pack trains through Apache country, storming Moro forts in the Philippines, chasing Pancho Villa through the badlands of northern Mexico.
He resisted change, and, even as late as the summer of 1918, was de- manding two cavalry divisions for service among the barbed wire, the machine-gun nests, and trench systems of the western front.
In his life- time of eighty-eight years, weaponry developed from the cavalry saber to the atomic bomb, with rapid-fire armament, tanks, aircraft, and poison gas in-between, but he always regarded warfare as a matter of men with guns in their hands.
Self-confidence was the keystone of his PLOWBOY, OFFICER, AND GENTLEMAN 15 career, and firmness, if not granitic stubbornness, was the main element of his character.
On being jumped from command of a border division to commander in chief of the A.
If they wouldn't take a simple "No," he did not hesitate to raise his voice and bang his fist on the conference table to make it more emphatic.
During a crucial meeting of the Supreme War Council in May of 1918, when the Germans had blackjack service jack the Allied front, he refused to be coerced on an important issue, and Lord Milner whispered to Prime Minister Lloyd George, "It's no use.
You can't budge him an inch.
He had been un- budgeable all his life and didn't propose to change in the rarefied atmosphere of European war councils.
His nickname was significant.
They called him Black Jack Per- shing.
For a man whose lifelong concern was organized violence, he was born in the proper time and place, less than a year before the Civil War started and in a section of Missouri which was overrun by guer- rillas, border fighters, and bushwhackers of all persuasions.
He was literally under fire before he was four years old.
He drew his "daily ration" from a friendly Union Army sergeant.
He watched the gaunt men from both armies return to their homes, many of them maimed or diseased, most of them disillusioned, all of them hating war more than they hated each other, after the surrender at Appomattox.
War deeply scored the earliest conscious moments of his life.
Joseph Railroad on the outskirts of Laclede, a village in northeastern Missouri, on September 13, 1860.
His father, John F.
Pershing, was a section foreman on the railroad at the time of his first child's birth, but his ambition and energy were to make him one 16 SOLDIER ON THE FRONTIERS of Laclede's leading citizens within a few years; his mother, the former Ann Thompson, was descended from old Virginia stock.
There was small chance that "Jackie," as his family called him even after he be- came an imposing national figure, would be spoiled.
He was the first of nine children.
Three of the children died in infancy not a bad proportion in those daysbut two brothers and three sisters survived.
The Pershing ancestry was a purposeful mixture of Anglo-Saxon on his mother's side of the house, Alsatian and German on his father's.
Frederick Has blackjack peek mirror really, a Lutheran who spoke both French and German, came over as a "re- demptioner" on the sailing ship Jacob, indentured to the ship's captain until he had worked out his passage over.
In succeeding generations, part of the Pershing family stayed behind in Pennsylvania and part joined the movement westward.
Pershing wrote with pride, "furnished pioneers as the frontier moved westward.
They were found in the columns that settled the Western Reserve; in the trains that carried civilization to Indiana, Illinois, Missouri and the Middle West, and were represented among the early settlers of Blackjack der bodyguard stream and California.
Their log cabins have dotted every state from Pennsylvania to the Pacific.
Scouts located the Indians' camp and an immediate assault was ordered by Captain Campbell.
This was delayed when Conrad, as unofficial chaplain of the expedition, in- sisted blackjack vf streaming they all get down on their knees and pray.
Conrad prayed so loudly and fervently possibly on purposethat he had to be silenced by his more military comrades.
An hour later the company descended PLOWBOY, OFFICER, AND GENTLEMAN 17 on the hostile camp to find it deserted.
General Pershing, who came across this account in his later years, scrawled on its margin a disapproving comment on his great-uncle's pious lapse: "Hardly a military proceeding.
Pershing, the general's father, migrated to Missouri by working his way down the Ohio on flatboats and was hired as boss of a track-laying gang pushing the railroad across northwestern Mis- souri.
He met Ann Elizabeth Thompson, who had been born twenty- four years before in Blount County, Kentucky, while she was living on her family's farm outside the town of Warrenton, Missouri.
They were married in 1859 and settled down in the section house outside Laclede, where neighbor women assisted in the birth of their first son.
The family soon moved out of the section house to a more sub- stantial two-story frame house in town, with a porch, bay windows, and outbuildings.
Pershing had already started rising in the small world of Laclede, had opened a store, had been appointed United States postmaster and elected captain of the Home Guard.
Re- mote and sylvan though that corner of the state was, Linn County knew sectional strife long before most of the country.
The elder Pershing had, of course, declared for the North and the Union.
His mother's family, General Pershing said, was "distinctly southern in manners and habits of thought," but opposed to slavery.
So there was no argument over national issues in the Pershing house.
When war came, John F.
Pershing, whose interests were more mercantile than military, marched off with the 20th Missouri Infantry as its sutler.
His connection with the war, even in this peripheral role, was limited to a few brief campaigns.
Perhaps the most venturesome of his wartime experiences was going to Vicksburg and bringing back his wife's brother, who had been wounded in the siege and was in- capacitated for further service.
Young John Pershing may not have been able to recall in later 18 SOLDIER ON THE FRONTIERS years the talk of Shiloh, Gettysburg, and Chickamauga that echoed through his earliest childhood, but what he called a "vulgar and vicious" kind of war came to his doorstep when he was not quite four years old.
On June 18, 1864, a mob of Confederate bushwhackers led by a Captain Holtzclaw, the terror of the neighborhood, rode into Laclede.
The earliest recollection of his life, as Pershing wrote in a draft of the unpublished memoir of his pre-1917 years, was of the raiders galloping into the town, riding around the square and through the streets, firing their guns into the homes of known Unionists.
Several men who tried to resist them were shot.
The Pershings were among the most prominent Unionists in Laclede, and their house, with the United States flag flying outside, attracted the bushwhackers' attention immediately.
Pershing's father took his double-barreled shotgun and headed for the door, but his mother threw her arm around him and "begged him not to be so foolish.
Fortu- nately their aim did not match their enthusiasm, and the family sur- vived the brief siege without harm.
A trainload of Union sol- diers, summoned by telegraph from the nearest garrison, arrived to send the bushwhackers ingloriously flying.
The boy's next martial memory was less violent: the weary files of Union and Confederate soldiers straggling back to their homes, neighbors once again, after Appomattox.
With his father prospering and the family increasing at the rate of a child a year, Pershing's boyhood was the kind of rough and carefree idyll such as another Missourian would be describing in the adventures of Tom Sawyer and Huckleberry Finn.
The country around Laclede was sparsely settled, making it ideal for boyhood's purposes.
Young John knew the best places for hunting the quail, squirrel, coon, and wild turkey which abounded in the thickets, the most promising fish- ing holes in Turkey, Locust, and Muddy creeks.
In the spring he and his friends would make catches by the wagonload when the streams flooded, then receded, and left hundreds of fish trapped in the isolated pools.
They spent hours frolicking in the swimming holes at Pratt's pond and the Woodland Mills dam, where the mill itself hung over the water on stilts.
On long summer days, wearied of other sports, he and PLOWBOY, OFFICER, AND GENTLEMAN 19 his friends would lie under the giant cottonwoods along the creek bottoms and discuss the latest exploits of the James boys, the Younger brothers, and other offshoots of the Quantrell raiders for whom the war would never end.
In the library at home, Pershing recalled hi mature years, there was an assortment of good reading: the Bible, Pilgrim's Progress, Aesop's Fables, Robinson Crusoe, the works of Shakespeare, Scott, Poe, and Byron, but he surreptitiously devoted himself to the paperback volumes of Beadle's Dime Library and once hi school was caught poring over one of them behind his geography, because "I be- came so absorbed in the hairbreadth escapes of the heroes of those blood-curdling tales.
He was supposed to recite Mary Had a Little Lamb at a school exercise to which the parents were invited.
Every gruesome detail of that recitation stuck in his mind ever after- ward.
The words entirely left me.
After a dreadful pause, Mother, who sat well up front, came to the rescue, whispering the first line loud enough for me to hear.
If any of the Pershing boys made good, they believed, it would be Jim, who seemed to have more "push.
John, whose lifelong failing was an habitual tardiness, was a regular target of the schoolmaster.
The lockout caused almost as much of a stir in town as Holtzclaw's raid.
It took the local pastor and the whole school board to persuade the boys to remove the ladder bar- ricading the door.
It was also John's last known defiance of authority in any form.
He learned to chew tobacco and smoke a corncob behind the to- bacco barn owned by Clay Biggers's father.
Clay, the future mayor of Laclede, shared a seat with him in school and squared off with him in schoolyard fights.
Whip him one day and he would be right back to tackle you the next.
He was the gamest boy I ever knew.
The people of Laclede, he noted, made a great show of being religious, but "they did not always live up to the tenets of their church.
But they usually came back into the fold during the revivals held each winter, when they would express deep regret at their conduct, only to fall from grace later on.
This hypocrisy did not escape the observation of even the growing children.
He made friends with the sergeant of the guard, who gave him a piece of hardtack every day which he solemnly brought home and presented to his mother as "my day's ration.
He resembled her in looks and temperament, having inherited her square jaw, wide brow, well- spaced eyes, and firm mouth, her common sense and competence in everything she undertook.
He recalled in later years that she was per- haps the most accomplished horsewoman in that section.
His brother Jim, on the other hand, inherited their father's hearty outgoing just click for source PLOWBOY, OFFICER, AND GENTLEMAN 21 sonality and ability to make himself popular.
Of these paternal quali- ties, the older boy received scant measure.
There was little in his early years to suggest that John would be much different from the boys he played and made mischief with, who grew up to be farmers, clerks, day laborers, and drifters.
As the boy grew older, however, his parents made him aware of the fact that more was expected of him than running wild in the woods and creek bottoms.
John and Ann Pershing wanted something better for their family than ordinary, obscure, and aimless lives.
The elder Pershing had become a leading merchant and landowner, president of the local school board, and superintendent of the Sunday school at the Methodist Church.
He planned a college education for John and the other children, so they were expected to work hard at their studies.
John, as the oldest boy, was also introduced early, before his twelfth year, to the virtues of manual labor.
On farmlands acquired by his father at the edge of Laclede, John learned to plow the soil, plant and cultivate long rows of corn, feed and otherwise care for the hogs and cattle, all the farm chores which began before sunup and ended just after sundown.
It was noted that the young plowboy hated a crooked furrow; he'd sweat and strain for an hour to remove a rock from the path of his plow and keep his rows straight.
John's apprenticeship was doubly valuable when in the panic of 1873, his father's holdings were almost wiped out.
The elder Pershing had bought up a number of farms with the help of bank loans, and with the postwar depression came the inevitable foreclosures.
The Pershings lost all but one farm, which John was to work singlehanded at the age of fourteen while his father went out on the road as a traveling salesman for several years for a Saint Joseph clothing manu- facturer and later for a Chicago firm.
It was left to John, through the remainder of his teens, to act as head of the family while his father was on the road, keep up his schooling, and make the farm on the out- skirts of Laclede pay its way.
A sense of responsibility was thus in- grained into him permanently.
It was just as well that he had those few carefree boyhood years before he was introduced to the sterner realities, because he never was released from them until he was a very old man, so old and ill that he was the captive of his doctors and nurses.
For the rest of his youth, unwittingly enough, he might have served 22 SOLDIER ON THE FRONTIERS as a model for one of Horatio Alger's all but incredible heroes.
There was an almost dreary sense of rectitude, striving, and achievement about the years of his youth; yet it was not at all uncommon in those times, when so much more was demanded of young men.
From all accounts, he accepted his lot cheerfully and without giving himself any airs or assuming that he was a martyr to family responsibility.
At the age of seventeen, when he might have been entering college if his father had been less optimistic about the value of Linn County farm- land, he qualified as a teacher at the elementary school at Prairie Mound, where he was paid thirty-five dollars a month, cash money, for drilling the fundamentals into those pupils who came to learn and thumping discipline into those who slouched at their desks and tried to interfere with that process.
John had a way with rebellious and dis- orderly louts as well as the more receptive pupils, and he was asked to come back a second year.
One significant episode of his two-year tenure as teacher at Prairie Mound's one-room school survives.
Blakely, who had been one of Pershing's pupils, told a Kansas City Star reporter during World War I how a burly redheaded farmer rode up to the schoolhouse one morning, brandishing a revolver and roaring out demands that the teacher show himself.
Pershing had whipped his oldest boy for having kicked a dog which had strayed into the schoolroom.
Blakely remembered how the farmer "rode up cursing before all the children in the schoolyard and how another boy and I ran down a gully because we were afraid.
We peeked over the edge, though, and heard Pershing tell the farmer to put up his gun, get down off his horse, and fight like a man.
The farmer got down and John stripped off his coat.
He was only a boy of eighteen.
In later years, too, Pershing did not hesitate to use his fists, if necessary, to make a point.
He saved the money earned from teaching to attend the 1879 and 1880 spring terms at the State Normal School at Kirksville now the Northeast Missouri State Teachers College and on June 17, 1880, was awarded the degree of Bachelor of Scientific Didactics, an edu- PLOWBOY, OFFICER, AND GENTLEMAN 23 cational whimsey of the time.
In Kirksville he lived with an uncle, William Griffith, and nights, after putting aside his textbooks, he began reading his way through Blackstone.
His ambition then was to become a lawyer; the career of a professional soldier had never occurred to him at an age when most boys intent on a military career were entering or applying to enter West Point.
Meanwhile, he continued to teach school and work the family farm.
As he turned twenty-one, his sister May recalled of him, John was very particular about his appearance, used to keep his Sunday trousers pressed between the mattresses on his bed, and was exceedingly proud of the gray kid gloves his father had given him as a birthday present.
The whole course of his life, which might have proceeded along the quiet channels 61 a small-town legal career, was changed by a few inches of type appearing hi newspapers published throughout the Sec- ond Congressional District under the signature of Congressman J.
It read, "On July 15th there will be a competitive ex- amination for the appointment of a cadet at the United States Military Academy at West Point.
All honest, strong, God-fearing boys of this district may take part.
The military profession was generally held in low repute and regarded as a refuge for misfits, drunkards, and ruffians.
A familar jeer at the sight of a uniform was, "Soldier, will you work?
Some of America's best soldiers odds casino blackjack been hooked with this bright lure, the chance of a "free" education.
Eighteen candidates took the examination that summer at Trenton, with the result that Pershing received the highest grades and the ap- pointment to the military academy was his, provided he could pass its more stringent academic board's requirements.
On December 28, 1881, the Laclede News announced: "John J.
Pershing will take leave of home and friends this week for West Point, where he will enter the United States Military Academy.
John will make a first-rate, good- looking cadet with Uncle Sam's blue, and we trust ho will ever wear it with honor to himself and the old flag which floats above him.
John, 24 SOLDIER ON THE FRONTIERS here's our hand!
May success crown your efforts and a long life be yours!
The shaking-down process which stood between him and graduation was formidable.
Of 183 appointees in his class, only 129 passed the examinations, and of those 129 only seventy-seven received their diplomas in 1886.
John applied himself, as usual, and passed the West Point examination, entering the Academy as a plebe in July, 1882, just short of his twenty-second birthday the legal limit for ad- mittance and six years older than the youngest member of his class.
Demonstrating, at least, the diversity of American character, some odd types managed to survive the Academy's screening process.
Andrews, Pershing's classmate and a somewhat more sophisticated easterner, recalled that among them were some casino blackjack specimens whose eccentricities would require all the grooming and standardizing that West Point could apply.
Another boy from Oregon walked over one hundred miles to a rail- road station and then traveled by train for the first time in his life.
No one can ever forget his first guard tour with all its preparation and perspiration.
I got along all right during the day, but at night on the color line my troubles began.
Of course, I was PLOWBOY, OFFICER, AND GENTLEMAN 25 scared beyond the point of properly applying any of my orders.
A few minutes after taps, ghosts of all sorts began to click from all di- rections.
I selected a particularly bold one and challenged according to orders, 'Halt, who goes there?
I then said, 'Halt, who stands there?
Then I promptly said, 'Halt, who sits there?
I never stood high in French and was prone to burn the midnight oil.
One night Walcott and Bentley Mott came in to see me.
My roommate, 'Lucy' Hunt, was in bed asleep.
Suddenly we heard Flaxy, who was officer in charge, coming up the stairs several steps at a time.
I snatched the blanket from the window, turned out the light and leaped into bed, clothing and all, while Walcott seeing escape impossible, gently woke Hunt, and in a whisper said, 'Lucy, may I crawl under your bed?
The deep impression these great men made during their visits to West Point in our day went far to inspire us with the soldier's spirit of self-sacrifice, duty and honor.
Howard was superintendent, soon to be succeeded by the dashing General Wes- ley Merritt, who had commanded a cavalry division under Sheridan at the age of twenty-seven.
The clearest picture of Pershing as a cadet was provided by Robert Here Bullard, who was in the class ahead of him and who subsequently commanded the Second Army in France under him.
Bullard, a south- erner, was cadet lieutenant while Pershing was first sergeant of A Company of the Cadet Corps and apparently observed him closely.
Bullard noted that Pershing had it easier than most of his classmen who were an average three years younger because he was "more ma- ture than most cadets" and quickly developed the "right idea of com- mand and authority.
Pershing in- 26 SOLDIER ON THE FRONTIERS spired confidence but not affection.
Personal magnetism seemed lack- ing.
He won followers and admirers, but not personal worshippers.
Plain in word, sane and direct in action, he applied himself to all duty and all work with a manifest purpose, not only of succeeding in what he attempted, but of surpassing, guiding and directing his fellows in what was before them.
His exercise of authority was then, and always has been since, of a nature peculiarly impersonal, dispassionate, hard and firm.
This quality did not, as in many, give offense; the man was too impersonal, too given over to pure business and duty.
This instinctive grasp of the "right to obedience" led Pershing blackjack der bodyguard stream ily upward through the West Point ranks, until he was first captain of the Cadet Corps, "the most coveted place a cadet casino de mexico online blackjack hold.
Then and for the rest of his life he loved dancing, and he became another man hi the company of women; the icily commanding manner was defrosted and the hard look in the eyes melted amazingly.
Pershing was attractive as well as attracted to the opposite sex, with his tall erect figure, dark blond hair, and gray-blue eyes.
He loved the society of women.
That, too, like other early characteris- tics, seems to have held with him.
This peculiar flaw in a man otherwise so sternly self-disciplined and so im- patient with his own and others' human frailties, this almost comic lack of time sense, was to become exaggerated, if anything, with the passage of the years and cause amusement and consternation, not to say vexation, from Paris to Tokyo; it was to confound important per- sonages who had never been kept waiting in all their lives; but it was never to be cured.
In scholastic standing he ranked No.
The French class was the scene of his bitterest torments, which would have been no surprise to those who watched and listened to his struggles with the language many years later in France.
His class- mate Walcott told of coming upon Pershing "immersed in his French books" with "an expression of hopelessness and discouragement that indicated he felt he would sink.
Sometimes he foundered hi English, too, according to Walcott, and occasionally his recitations in that class were "painful.
Pershing, what is a pseudo-metaphor?
Perhaps the solemnest moment of his cadet career came in his fourth year at the Point.
General Grant's funeral train rolled down from Al- bany, where he had lain in state, and passed through the West Point station of Garrison, across the Hudson from the Academy.
As the black-draped train slowly passed on its way to New York City, the whole undergraduate battalion with Cadet Captain Pershing at its head stood at present arms.
It could hardly have occurred to him that in character and military aptitude, even to some extent in personality, he would more closely resemble Grant than any other eminent American commander.
He managed to escape the presidency.
Thus in the spring of 1886, commissioned a second lieutenant in the cavalry by President Grover Cleveland, his ill-defined hopes for a legal career deferred at least temporarily, he entered the Regular Army, then an establishment of less than 25,000 officers and men, with the Indians all but pacified and war not even a smudge on the horizon.
It was a career that most young men would have regarded as the stark- est of dead ends.
But Pershing entered on the professional military life with hope and enthusiasm; he and his classmates celebrated their gradu- ation in high glee with a dinner at Delmonico's the night of June 12, with Pershing at the head of the table as class president.
Their high spirits evidently were still undampened when he and sev- eral of his fellows entrained for Fort Bayard in New Mexico, the head- 28 SOLDIER ON THE FRONTIERS quarters of the 6th Cavalry, to which they were posted.
None of the high- spirited young men cared to shoot it out with this dour specimen, nor to risk having a brawl with a civilian the first entry on their records.
Pershing's first assignment landed him hi the heart of the Apache country during the last campaign against the dissident Apache chiefs, the most notable and possibly the most ferocious of whom was Ge- ronimo.
Months before, Geronimo, roaring drunk on mescal, had fled the reservation with his braves and struck terror into settlements in New Mexico, Arizona, and Old Mexico with his cunning and merciless raids, killing, burning, and torturing.
The Army eventually gathered up a total of 5000 troops to run down less than a tenth of their number- but they were Apaches and Geronimo was their leader.
They kept duck- click the following article back and forth across the international boundary until both Ameri- can and Mexican governments agreed that the U.
In April of 1886 General George Crook, whom Commanding Gen- eral Philip H.
Sheridan did not believe was ruthless enough in his operations, requested that he be relieved of command.
He was re- placed by Nelson A.
Miles, one of the more successful Indian-fighting generals on the frontier, who had been the youngest corps commander in the Union Army.
General Miles said later that he "adopted the same methods used to capture bands of wild horses years ago on the plains of Texasby constantly pursuing, putting in fresh relays and finally wearing them down.
The heliostat, later known as the heliograph, was the in- strument of his choice; it was a mirror mounted on a tripod which, by reflecting sunlight, could flash messages in Morse please click for source for fifty or more miles.
Years before, an English officer in the Indian Army had PLOWBOY, OFFICER, AND GENTLEMAN 29 invented the heliostat, and it had worked out well there.
Miles also had tested it during campaigns in the Northwest.
Placing heliostat sta- tions on twenty-seven mountain peaks in Arizona and New Mexico, with signalers and infantry guards at each station, Miles was enabled to keep watch over a 600 square mile area, transmitting and relaying more than 2000 messages during the Geronimo campaign and pushing his troops in for the kill on orders blinked in Morse code over the mountains.
Lieutenant Pershing's first job was taking command of a detach- ment charged with locating a line of heliostat stations between Forts Bayard and Stanton.
It was dangerous work, since the Apache bands still hadn't been brought under control and were striking like forked lightning over the desert floor, attacking settlements, stage stops, water holes, and cavalry patrols.
Later, when the chain of heliostat stations was in working order, he was placed in command of a pack train which took supplies to isolated posts throughout the Apache country.
It was brutal work.
At any moment his mule train and escort of a dozen or so troopers might be ambushed.
Every arroyo, mesa, and clump of brush might conceal a war party.
All along his route smoke signals the Apache equivalent of the heliostat and almost as effective rose from high ground, tracing his progress.
Pershing and his troopers would spend sixteen hours a day in the saddle, hurrying through the hostile country, and at night when the supply-laden aparejo would be slipped off their mules' backs the animals would collapse in puddles of their own sweat.
Eventually Lieutenant Pershing was commended for "having accomplished a particularly fine piece of work" in main- taining the supply lines.
His only brush with the Apache raiders occurred one day while he was waiting at Fort Wingate to take out another pack train.
A wounded cowhand rode into the fort with news of a night raid on the ranch where he was employed.
Scores of hostiles were circling the place, to which the cowhand and a number of his friends had re- paired after pursuing and catching several cattle thieves.
Now thieves and honest cowhands alike were holed up and facing a common fate.
A troop was placed under Pershing's command to ride to the ranch and rescue the besieged.
When they approached the place, Pershing ordered his patrol to attack in extended order so the Apaches would be given the impression they were confronted with a superior force, especially since Pershing and his command swept down on them from 30 SOLDIER ON THE FRONTIERS a hillside at their rear.
The Apaches were taken by surprise and chased away; the ranch party was rescued, with several dead among them.
And there was an unsentimental footnote to the affair; the cattle thieves, though they had helped drive off the raiders, were duly hanged.
Pershing was learning the cavalryman's trade under the pressure of active campaigning.
A photograph taken of him with the officers of the 6th Cavalry, their wives, and children indicated a hardening information online blackjack casino canada not the smiling cadet of only a few months before.
He was lounging on the porch of the officers' quarters with his arms around a little girl, read article face leaner, older, and tougher.
He had grown a blondish beard and mustache and looked every inch the veteran cavalryman.
One of the features of his inveterate professionalism was his striking ability to look the part, whether he was suddenly called upon to perform as a military attach6 abroad, lead a cavalry column into some wild in- terior, or command a group of armies.
With his cape thrown back over his shoulders and his cap with the crossed sabers tilted over one eye, he looked as though he had spent at least ten years chasing Apache war parties.
The hard-nosed quality in Pershing was conveyed to the men under his command very early in his career.
It was an Old Army legend that shortly after his arrival at Fort Bayard one of his troopers took ex- ception to his insistence on Academy standards go here discipline and obedience, which were somewhat more rigid than define blackjack verb of a frontier regiment.
Pershing's only recourse, as with the redheaded farmer in the go here at Prairie Mound, was to show him who was the better man with his fists, although a fight between an officer and an enlisted man was theoretically taboo.
Pershing won, of course; he always won in any contest over his right to command, whether it was over the polished wood of a conference table or the trampled straw behind the stables.
Robert Lee Bullard, who was stationed nearby, heard of the bare-knuckle encounter and years later recollected that Pershing had been challenged by his subordinates link twice in his career "once by one who, as I heard, was convinced by Second Lieutenant Pershing in his shirt-sleeves, and once, I knew, by one who within forty-eight hours had paid with his life for his disobedience to Captain Pershing -dying of cholera.
PLOWBOY, OFFICER, AND GENTLEMAN 31 Some years later he would be called Black Jack Pershing, which seemed a perfect description of his forceful character.
Men learning that they were to fall under his command knew what to expect, what was ex- pected of them, and conducted themselves accordingly.
The other side of the coin was the fact that Pershing looked after his men more dili- gently than most officers, keeping a close watch over their food, equip- ment, living quarters, and sanitation the mark of the best kind of company officer.
As soon as he had the troops firmly in hand, he turned his atten- tion to more scholarly matters in his spare time.
He absented himself from the poker games at the post trader's store, after becoming so fascinated with the game that "I began seeing poker hands in my sleep.
In place of those amusements he read his way through the post library and devoted himself to learning the Indian dialects from tame Apaches and civilian scouts hanging around the fort.
Soon he was able to speak in the Apache tongue and had mastered the sign language which was the lingua franca of the Plains.
Only a handful of officers took their profession that seriously.
After sixteen months of rugged campaigning, of ambushes and fire fights in the mountains, of forced marches so grueling that even the mules couldn't stand the pace, General Miles's flying column com- manded by Captain Henry W.
Lawton of the 4th Cavalry drove Geronimo and less than a hundred of his followers to the end of their resources high in the Sierra Madre.
Geronimo agreed to surrender and was sent into exile in Florida, then a sort of American Devil's Island, along with his die-hard followers and their families.
General Miles was not entirely satisfied with the Army's perform- ance in that campaign or the fact that it took one year and four months for 5000 troops to round up a handful of unruly Indians.
He called for large-scale maneuvers during the autumn of 1887, only a few months after active campaigning ceased.
The handsome, white-maned, and egocentric Miles did not distribute compliments lavishly among his subordinates, but he found occasion to praise Lieutenant Pershing for "marching his troops with a pack train of 140 mules in forty-six hours and bringing in every animal in good condition.
One lieutenant and his troop would be assigned to enact the roles of Apache raiders, and another would be detailed to their pursuit.
Carr, commander of the 6th Cavalry, singled out Pershing as one of the more vigorous troop commanders.
At Stanton, Pershing became acquainted with a number of ranchers and their families who had their spreads along Eagle Creek, to the south and west of the fort.
Among them were Pat Garrett, the ex- sheriff of Lincoln County, and John Poe, a former cattle detective.
Half a dozen years earlier, with one of Garrett's deputies, the two men had stealthily approached the main building on Pete Maxwell's ranch at old Fort Sumner in search of an elusive young man named William H.
Bonney, better known as Billy the Kid, and Garrett had shot and killed the Kid hi Maxwell's bedroom.
Pershing met Garrett and Poe when they came to Fort Stanton to pick up their mail and frequently visited them and their families at their ranches on Eagle Creek.
Poe's wife, Sophie, remembered Pershing as a friendly and unaf- fected young man.
He and two other young lieutenants were known to the people in the neighborhood as "The Three Green Peas," who went riding around the countryside in their off-duty hours, exploring the desert and foothills under the white peaks of the Sierra Blanca.
One of the places they often visited was a roadside inn kept by Mr.
Once they went boar hunting and shot one of Mrs.
Lisnet's pigs under the misapprehension that it was a wild and fero- cious tusker.
Lisnet gave them a dressing down that fairly crisped the air around them; however, they soon managed to re-establish themselves in the Irish lady's good graces.
Almost thirty years later, a brigadier general with a distinguished record, Pershing stopped off at Roswell to inspect the New Mexico Military Institute.
He heard that the Lisnets were living in Roswell and went to look them up.
Poe said that Pershing approached Mrs.
Lisnet with a smile, saying, "How do you do, Mrs.
Trotting unmarried female relatives around the post PLOWBOY, OFFICER, AND GENTLEMAN 33 was then one of the duties of a young officer.
Lieutenant Paddock, one of the "Three Green Peas," was taken with Grace and they were soon married.
A little more than ten years later Grace was widowed when Paddock was killed in China during the Boxer Rebellion.
On May 9, 1889, Pershing was given a mission both delicate and dangerous by Colonel Carr.
Three white men had raided the Zuni reservation for horses and killed three Indians while trying to make their escape.
The three horse thieves were tracked down and sur- rounded by 150 Zunis in a building on the S Ranch.
Pershing was sent from Fort Wingate with ten troopers as an escort to stop the battle.
He persuaded the enraged Indians to call off their attacks, then crept up to the cabin where the white men were holed up.
Kicking in the door, he confronted the three renegades with a revolver in his hand.
He promised them safe conduct past the encircling Indians, and their situa- tion being hopeless under siege they agreed to accompany him.
The Indians accepted Pershing's word that the renegades would be pun- ished.
Pershing brought the thieves safely to the Fort Wingate guard- house, where they were held for trial.
He spent a little more than four years commanding a troop in the 6th Cavalry at Forts Stanton, Bayard, and Wingate.
Then, late in 1890, the nation had its last big Indian scare.
Again the Sioux threat- ened to rebel against the relentless encroachments of the white man.
Setting off the uprising was a religious craze called the Ghost Dance, which spread through most of the Blackjack der bodyguard stream tribes in the West, but af- fected the Sioux most strongly.
The Indians believed that the second coming of Christ was at hand, but this time the Messiah would be an Indian, who would disperse the whites, bring back the buffalo, and restore the ancient freedom of the Plains.
Sitting Bull, the symbol of Sioux resistance, went along with the Ghost Dance propaganda.
Two years before, the old Sioux who had been one of the leaders at the Little Big Horn when the 7th Cavalry was shattered had blocked the sale of 11,000,000 acres of Sioux land at fifty cents an acre.
Now the whites would have their revenge.
Washington decided that Sitting Bull and his few hundred followers at Grand River must be disarmed.
What followed was simply a merciless police action in the winter- locked badlands on the Hands blackjack in what win border.
In justifiable anticipation of trouble over the old chief's arrest, Miles ordered troops 34 SOLDIER ON THE FRONTIERS from Chicago to San Francisco concentrated at and near the Pine Ridge Agency in South Dakota, a mobilization aided by the fact that the Burlington Road's wizard of odds blackjack penetrated deep into the Sioux country.
Early in December 1890 the 6th Cavalry received its marching or- ders, concentrating at Albuquerque for the long train ride north to the railhead at Fort Niobrara, Nebraska, just south of the Dakota line and the Rosebud Agency.
Pershing and his regiment formed part of the picket fence around the Sioux country, a cordon which was to seal off the hostiles until they decided to surrender.
On the night of December 14, Sitting Bull was shot to death by an Indian Police sergeant as he was being hauled out of his cabin at Grand River.
A battle broke out between the arresting force and his followers, and the thirty-two day "war" against the Sioux was on.
Its sorry culmination was the so-called Battle of Wounded Knee, Decem- ber 29, when upwards of 150 men, women, and children of Big Foot's band were slaughtered.
All over the vast, snow-covered reservation for the next several days there were skirmishes and running battles as bands of Sioux warriors tried to go here through the Army's cordon.
Pershing and his comrades on the outer perimeter took part in two brief skirmishes with the hostiles as they patrolled the ice-slicked line of the railroad south of the reservation.
Now commanding a company of Sioux scouts, Pershing was pa- trolling Little Grass Creek a few miles from Daly's ranch when they were attacked on January 1, 1891, by Kicking Bear and his band, who were close to starvation and hoping to raid one of the nearby ranches for food.
Pershing and his command drove them off, killing four of the hostiles.
The brief skirmish provided the first combat cita- tion on Pershing's record "Action near mouth of Little Grass Creek, South Dakota, January 1, 1891.
Two weeks later, sick and starving, the Sioux decided that the Mes- siah would not be coming to their rescue, and there was a mass sur- render at the Pine Ridge Agency.
The last of the Indian wars was over.
To impress the Sioux further with the white man's military power, a review of all the troops participating in the campaign was held at Pine Ridge.
Then Pershing, with Troop A, and four other troops of the 6th Cavalry were sent back to Fort Niobrara.
On the march they were overtaken by a blizzard which smothered the Dakota country and PLOWBOY, OFFICER, AND GENTLEMAN 35 took many lives.
Fortunately Pershing saw to it that his men were equipped with canvas overcoats, felt oversocks, and overshoes before they set out from the agency.
Troop A long remembered how Lieu- tenant Pershing made certain that his troopers muffled their faces with towels, pegged down their tents securely, and were supplied with cooked rations on that march through the blizzard.
Not a man was lost.
Years later Sergeant Tom Stevenson, a Civil War veteran, told an interviewer, "That's the sort of officer Pershing was, always think- ing about his men, and that's why the men would do anything for him.
A Silver Star for San Juan Hill Early in the nineties one of the most admired figures on the campus of the University of Nebraska, a land-grant school in Lincoln, was a keen-eyed young man whose back was straight as a slide rule and who marched from building to building as though their ivyless walls en- closed a parade ground.
Against all odds, the young man had won the respect of the faculty and was idolized by the student body.
One of his admirers was a young lady named Dorothy Canfield, the daughter of Dr.
James Hulme Canfield, the president of the university.
As Doro- thy Canfield Fisher, she was to become a celebrated novelist and essay- ist.
One of the more impressive memories of her student years was how Second Lieutenant John J, Pershing assumed the rather despised post of Professor of Military Science and Tactics, as well as Commandant of Cadets, and made something of it.
The school, under terms of its government grant, was required to place an army officer on its faculty, but until then none of Pershing's predecessors had succeeded in making anyone like the idea.
Until Pershing's appearance, President Canfield noted that "interest in the battalion was weak, the discipline next to nothing, and the instincts of the faculty and the President of the Uni- versity against the Corps.
In September of 1891 he was assigned to the post.
The assignment was regarded among his fellow officers as a sinecure, and Pershing was congratulated on being given a long vaca- tion with pay.
Nominally his duties would include a few hours on the drill field and a few more in the classroom.
Otherwise his time would 38 SOLDIER ON THE FRONTIERS be his own.
He could expect to be greeted with even more contempt and indifference than was the military man's usual lot among civilians, but doubtless he could find ways to amuse himself off-campus.
Pershing, however, had decided that if he could learn to get along with the sullen conquered Apaches of the Southwest he ought to be able to win the confidence of paleface college boys in Nebraska.
Ob- viously it wasn't going to be easy; only a few men were still willing to come out for drill, and his classes in military science and tactics were composed of a few yawning, sleepy-eyed students.
Amid the general apathy, Pershing decided to show the student body and the faculty that a professional soldier wasn't necessarily a red-faced dolt dream- ing of old battles.
He immediately informed President Canfield that he was there both to teach and to learn.
The school was short of mathe- matics instructors, so he volunteered to take classes in that subject in addition to his prescribed duties.
Among his students were Dorothy Canfield and Willa Gather, but as he commented later, "I doubt that the study of mathematics gave either one of them a taste for litera- ture.
He was still fond of dancing and attended most of the students' social affairs.
At thirty-one, he was a good ten years older than most of the students, but he cut a fine figure on the dance floor, partnering with all the coeds impartially and rarely dancing with any girl more than once in an evening.
He was both too discreet and too ambitious to become involved emotionally, though "crushes" on a young instruc- tor were an unofficial part of the curriculum.
More and more of the men began volunteering for the cadet bat- talion.
Inobtrusively, and partly through the visible admiration of the coeds for Lieutenant Pershing, he managed to invest the military with a certain amount of glamour, and his recruits were no longer regarded as servile clods marching to the orders of a stiff-necked West Pointer.
Not that he relaxed discipline in the battalion to make it more at- tractive; on the contrary, he made it stricter.
Athletic Director Best in an interview with a New York Times correspondent during World War I recalled that Pershing took his cadets in hand the first day they reported for drill : "It had been their habit before this time to come to drill with shoes blackened or not, just as they pleased.
When Pershing took hold the first thing he looked at was to see that all shoes were well blackened and A SILVER STAR FOR SAN JUAN HILL 39 that the heels looked as good as the toes.
He was just that thorough- going in everything all the time.
He was always just.
He had no pets.
Punishments for derelictions of duty came no swifter than his rewards for faithful performance.
Lieutenant Pershing had a very keen though grim sense of humor.
How he laughed when we appeared for the first time in white duck trousers as part of our uniform.
They were made under con- tract from measure by a concern which made tents and awnings, and the goods must have been cut out with a circular saw.
One of the shyest boys in school, as his sister afterward told an interviewer, was asked to stay after the class was dismissed one day.
The boy, tongued-tied as usual in recitation, had failed to finish his demonstration of a problem at the blackboard.
But Pershing told him, "All that kept you from work- ing out that problem was your nervousness.
I have marked you as though you had succeeded.
Grimly and typically mili- tary though he seemed in later life, he had a broader range of interests than most of his fellow officers, and a much greater talent for friend- ship with civilians, which most of his comrades avoided in preference to the closed-in and somewhat stifling society of Officers' Row, the regimental mess, and the post trader's saloon.
more info not only had very little anti-civilian prejudice but was still thinking seriously of re- turning to civil life; instead of regarding the civilian with suspicion and a touch of contempt, he was curious about other people, the way they lived and thought.
Pershing also had the valuable knack of forming associations with men on the rise, like himself, or perhaps it was the mutual attraction of 40 SOLDIER ON THE FRONTIERS men of aspiration and ambition.
Such men, caught in the backwater of the Nebraska capital, would naturally be drawn together.
After classes and drill were over for the day, he often dropped in at the law office of Charles E.
Magoon, the future governor general of Cuba.
Another firm and long-lasting friendship was formed in Lin- coln with Charles G.
Dawes, also a young lawyer, who in a remarkably short time was to leave his inconsequential practice in the frontier capital, make his way upward in Chicago financial circles, and even- tually land in the vice-presidency under Calvin Coolidge.
Pershing and Dawes fell into the habit of dining together at Don Cameron's ten-cent lunch counter, where they discussed the law and the possibility of Pershing's hanging out his shingle once he received his degree at the university.
The affection and respect engendered in those bull sessions over Cameron's bean suppers resulted more than twenty years later in Pershing's reaching down into an engineers regi- ment and selecting Dawes to supervise all the American Expeditionary Force's purchases in Europe.
Dawes was tall and loose-limbed, easygoing and gregarious; had a big nose and a wide humorous mouth, red hair and a rather absurd but currently fashionable handle-bar mustache; and was amiably in- clined toward the dandyism of that decade.
He was a great talker and Pershing a great listener, a perfect combination in a time and place where men had to depend on their own resources for entertainment.
A native of Marietta, Ohio, he was the son of General Rufus Dawes, who had served hi Congress with William McKinley, a family friend who in 1898 would appoint the younger Dawes as his Comptroller of Currency.
Most people thought Dawes something of a lightweight, with few of the steelier qualities required for success, and even the usually perceptive Mark Hanna remarked after his first meeting with him, "He doesn't look much, does he?
At the end of his second year as drillmaster of the university cadets, Pershing was so confident of his battalion that he entered it in the inter- state competitive drill, placing it on display against the crack com- panies of many other schools.
Lieutenant Pershing made the corps what it is today.
In the last year of his assignment at the University of Nebraska, President Canfield wrote the War Department a letter of praise for Pershing that was rarely surpassed in his later career.
I speak with both experience and observation, therefore, when I say without the slightest reserve that he is the most energetic, active and industrious, competent and successful I have ever known in a position of this kind.
He is thorough in everything he undertakes, a gentle- man by instinct and breeding, clean, straightforward, with an unusually bright mind; and peculiarly just and true in all his dealings.
In addi- tion to his work as instructor and his official duties, he has carried the course in our law school, and graduated last week with high standing.
He is a man of broad outlook who sees things in their true relations, and who desires to know and be more than he is.
He had been admitted to the bar of Nebraska and was seriously considering the possibility of resigning his commission and taking up a law career.
There were several factors influencing him, in addition to the new- found attractiveness of civilian life.
Inwardly he had never been fully committed to a lifetime of soldiering.
He had entered West Point be- cause it offered a more complete education, had stayed in the Army because he felt that he owed it to the government.
But there were facets of a military career that he found repellent its narrowness, its caste consciousness, its smug self-sufficiency.
The romantic aspects of soldiering on the frontier escaped him completelythough as an old man he recalled those days with a nostalgic affection and the prospect of spending endless years policing the Indian reservations was any- thing but inviting.
Furthermore, his mother still hoped that he would leave the Army; soldiering to her was the memory of her brother being brought back maimed and helpless from the siege of Vicksburg.
He was still a lieutenant at thirty-five an age at which a man is supposed to make sure of his course before it's too late to change and he had grave cause to wonder whether he had blackjack der bodyguard stream real future in the Army.
Promotion was so slow that many captains were white-haired.
A num- ber of click here classmates who had resigned their commissions, on the other hand, were successful in civil life.
Yet the odds were all against resignation from the Army.
West Pointers, it is evident from Academy records, either leave shortly after graduation or serve until retirement.
Pershing had sunk too deeply into the familiar rut, though his university experience had temporarily per- suaded him otherwise.
Hanging out his shingle at his age wouldn't be easy either, and besides he apparently realized that his reserved temperament was ill-suited to the rough and tumble of provincial courtrooms.
It was a hard decision, but Pershing finally came to the conclusion that the Army was his fate.
He had hated crooked furrows as a young plowboy, and that prejudice remained with him.
Never again was he tempted to change professions.
In the spring of 1 895, just before leaving the University of Nebraska, he learned that there was a vacant captaincy in the Quartermaster Corps.
He wanted that post because he might have to wait for years for another promotion in the cavalry; besides, in the event of a still unforeseen war, he could always transfer back to a line regiment.
Gen- erals Miles and Merritt supported his application, but Adjutant Gen- eral Henry C.
Corbin and his fellow bureaucrats still ruled the Army and to their clerkly minds a cavalryman ought to stick to his trade.
Instead he spent a year at Fort Assinboine, Montana Territory, com- manding a troop in the 10th Negro Cavalry, much of it in rounding up 600 renegade Crees and escorting them over the Canadian border.
Then Miles, now general in chief, summoned just click for source to Washington as his aide-de-camp.
General Miles's sponsorship was valuable in at least one respect: he saw to it that Pershing was posted to West Point as an assistant instructor, an assignment which suggested that an offi- cer was capable of thinking as well as fighting.
Before he began his year at West Point, another of visit web page fortuitous meetings with an upcoming man occurred.
Perhaps no other encounter of his career was so important to its advancement.
General Miles sent him to observe a military tournament at Check this out Square Garden in A SILVER STAR FOR SAN JUAN HILL 43 New York during January 1897.
His classmate, Avery D.
Andrews, who had resigned his commission and was serving on the Board of Police Commissioners with Theodore Roosevelt, had taken a box for the tournament and invited Pershing to be his guest.
Roosevelt, busily cleaning up the graft-ridden New York Police De- partment then but soon to be appointed Assistant Secretary of the Navy, was another guest in the Andrews box.
He and Pershing hit it off immediately, as was entirely predictable.
Roosevelt was the premier western buff of all time, and not the least of Pershing's fascination for him was his facility with the Indian dialects.
They spent more time swapping stories and comparing linguistic notes than watching the maneuvers on the tanbark that evening.
They spent the eve- ning in a lively exchange of views and stories of the West and formed a friendship which lasted through life.
With- out that meeting at Madison Square Garden, Pershing's life would have been vastly different.
As a tactical officer at West Point, Pershing was considerably less popular than he had been at the University of Nebraska.
He was charged with the immediate supervision and discipline of the cadets and believed that the Academy's standards of order and obedience should be kept at the same level as when he was a cadet.
Company A of the Cadet Corps, which was his immediate respon- sibility, chafed under Pershing's relentless demands and frequently abrasive personality.
Being healthy young Americans, they plotted mis- chief against their taskmaster.
Some of the cadets of Company A bal- anced a bucket of water on a door, placing it so that Pershing would be doused.
That particular trick had whiskers on it when Pershing was a cadet himself, and he spotted blackjack chance of winning trap before it could be sprung.
He ordered a janitor to remove it and said nothing.
The matter would have ended there, presumably, except that the janitor did not under- stand that he was walking into click here trap and inadvertently became the victim of the cadets' prank.
Soaking wet and thoroughly enraged, the 44 SOLDIER ON THE FRONTIERS janitor complained to the authorities.
Each member of Company A was summoned before the superintendent and questioned, but none would say who was responsible.
The whole company was sentenced to thirty days' confinement.
First his own company and then the whole corps took to calling Pershing "Nigger Jack" well out of hearing.
This, of course, referred to his service with the colored troops of the 10th Cavalry.
Later the sobriquet was tidied up and became "Black Jack.
Pershing had spent less than a year as a West Point instructor when the war with Spain broke out.
The mysterious sinking of the battleship Maine in Havana harbor, the sympathy for Cubans rebelling against the harsh Spanish colonial rule, and the national enthusiasm for join- ing the other great powers in acquiring colonieswith Cuba, Puerto Rico, and the Philippines rich prizes to be loosened from the palsied grip of the Spanish Empire all contributed to the declaration of war on April 25, 1898.
The ethics of that declaration did not concern Pershing any more than it did the majority of his fellow citizens; his main consideration was getting away from the classroom and into the fighting.
The thought of sitting out the war on the palisades of the Hudson while his fellow officers were winning glory and promotion in the Caribbean and the Pacific was maddening.
Yet regulations, it seemed, would keep him at West Point even while the Army in the field needed every experienced officer to train and lead its combat forces, and while the Regular Army was doubled in size and the President was calling for an additional 125,000 volun- teers.
Theodore Roosevelt, raising the regiment of Rough Riders with Leonard Wood as its colonel and himself as its more prominent sec- ond in command, bitterly remarked on "fat old colonels who fall off their horses or cannot stand a five-mile march.
The War Department bureaucracy had ruled that no officer was to be detached from the Academy's faculty to serve in the field.
Pershing considered resigning his commission and joining either Roosevelt's Rough Riders few people thought of the regiment as A SILVER STAR FOR SAN JUAN HILL 45 Wood's although he was its nominal commander or joining his class- mate Andrews in the New York National Guard.
Instead he obtained permission from West Point's sympathetic su- perintendent, Major Oswald H.
Ernst, to go to Washington and plead his case.
He went over Adjutant General Corbin's head, probably with an assist from General in chief Miles, and pleaded for return to regi- mental duty before Secretary of War Russell A.
Alger, himself a cav- alry veteran of the Civil War.
His appeal was persuasive blackjack der bodyguard stream for Alger to override his bureau chiefs and send Pershing back to the 10th Cavalry.
Since there was no troop command vacant, he was attached to Colonel Baldwin's staff as quartermaster.
He arrived in Tampa, Florida, just in time to accompany his Negro cavalry regiment in the landing on Cuban shores.
The sorry history of that movement does not require much recapitu- lation except in relation to Pershing's education in how not to conduct an operation overseas.
Practically everything went wrong.
By mid- June Major General William R.
Shafter, as commander of V Corps, which was to undertake the invasion, had managed to scrape together only 16,000 men, and barely enough transports, civilian and naval, to carry that many to the unmapped and unreconnoitered Cuban shore.
Most of the troops wore the Old Army's blue flannel for summer campaign- ing in the tropics; only the Rough Riders were suitably clad in light- weight khaki.
The canned beef was bluish; other rations were wormy or moldy.
Virtually no preparations were made to handle the sick and wounded.
Black powder was used to fire the American artillery's guns and the infantry's rifles while the supposedly antiquated Span- ish Army was equipped with smokeless powder and modern Mauser rifles.
When the first regiments were finally landed near the villages of Siboney and Daiquiri, the invading force was a tangled, seasick, and homesick mass, separated from their supplies, confused by a lack of leadership.
General Shafter was a fat gouty old man who had to be boosted into the saddle from a platform; General Joe Wheeler was a frail and white-bearded, but high-spirited veteran of the Confederate cavalry, who led the cavalry division when he was able, and many of 46 SOLDIER ON THE FRONTIERS their juniors were equally unfit for service in a jungle campaign.
Per- shing, however, loyally excused the miseries of the invasion as being due to the "inexperience of officers in transporting troops by water" and the "uncertainty as to whether or not the Spanish fleet was really confined in the harbor of Santiago.
The same attitude toward native allies, carried intact across the generations, was visible in the early stages of the Korean War.
At first sight and in the first brief actions against the Spanish forces, the Americans decided that the Cubans were all too ready to leave the fighting to the newcomers.
Pershing was more liberal-minded.
General Shafter, lying in a hammock with a malarial fever, was confi- dent that all opposition would be swept aside; he even rebuffed the offers of naval gun support from U.
The job, he felt, could be quickly and smartly handled by Lawton's infantry division, based on Daiquiri, and Wheeler's cav- alry division, headquartered at Siboney.
The infantry was to take out El Caney, a fortified spur which jabbed into the flank of the proposed American advance, while the cavalry stormed San Juan Hill and its line of stone blockhouses.
Dismounted, the cavalry slashed its way through the tropical forest, matted with vines and spiked with Spanish bayonet, and arrived in position several hours before the general advance scheduled for the morning of July 1.
Before El Caney, to the north, U.
The 10th Cavalry and its Negro troopers waited to go into action A SILVER STAR FOR SAN JUAN HILL 47 with S.
Young's brigade, which was to advance in two columns, the 1st and 10th Cavalry on the left, the Rough Riders on the right.
The scene as Pershing described it five months later in a well-wrought address before a Chicago church group was "ideally beautiful; the sky was cloudless and the air soft and balmy; peace seemed to reign supreme, great palms towered here and there above the low jungle.
It was a picture of a peaceful valley.
There was a feeling that we had secretly invaded the Holy Land.
The hush seemed to pervade all na- ture as though she held her bated breath in anticipation of the carnage.
Finally a projectile from an unseen Spanish gun discharged a Hotchkiss piece, wounded two caval- rymen and smashed into the old sugar mill in our rear, whereupon the terrorized insurgents fled and were not seen again near the firing line until the battle was over.
He rounded on the younger officer, demanding of him, "Why did you come into this war if you can't stand the gaff?
War has always been this way.
Did you expect to see the Old Man standing out here with a book in his hand, telling these mule-skinners how to handle their outfits?
The fat Old Man you talk about is going to win this campaign.
When he does, these things will be forgotten.
It's the ob- jective which counts, not the incidents.
Out of touch with V Corps headquarters, since Shafter had a direct cable and telegraph connection with Washington but none with his 48 SOLDIER ON THE FRONTIERS divisions at the front, the battle for Santiago proceeded on the initia- tive of the junior officers, the noncoms, and the troops themselves.
Lawton's infantry got stuck in front of El Caney, but the two cavalry columns pushed on toward San Juan Hill.
A converging fire from all the works within range opened up on us that was terrible in its effect.
Our mounted officers dismounted and the men stripped off at the roadside everything possible and prepared for business.
Under heavy fire as they advanced through the jungle, they panicked and fled rearward for safety.
Not even the threats and entreaties of the divisional commander and his staff could persuade them to move forward again.
Pershing and the 10th Cavalry's Second Squadron, which he was accompanying as a possible replacement for any officer who fell in action, took shelter under the bank of the San Juan River and "stood in the water to our waists waiting orders to deploy.
Remaining there under this galling fire of exploding shrapnel and deadly Mauser bul- lets the minutes seemed like hours.
Just as I raised my hand to salute in passing up the stream to reach the squadron of my regiment, a piece of bursting shell struck between us and covered congratulate, blackjack program java sorry both with water.
The regiment was soon deployed as skirmishers in an opening across the river to the right of the road and our line of skirmishers being partly visible from the en- emy's position, their fire was turned upon us and we had to lie down in the grass a few minutes for safety.
Two officers of the regiment were wounded; here and there were frequent calls for the surgeon.
Three cavalry regiments made the charge the regulars of the 1st and 10th, the volunteers of the Rough Riders.
Theodore Roosevelt, waving his campaign hat a la Phil Sheridan, led the westerners in person, Leonard Wood being occupied with higher command duties, and charged right over the hill and into the White House.
His Rough Riders, of course, received most of the glory, but the regular cavalry deserved at least an equal share of the credit.
As Pershing recalled, "Through streams, tall grass, tropical under- growth, under barbed wire fences and over wire free blackjack game to, re- gardless of casualties up the hill to the right, this gallant advance was made.
As we appeared on the brow of the hill we found the Spaniards retreating only to take up a new position farther on, spitefully firing as they retreated and only yielding their ground inch by inch.
This attack was supported by troops including some of the 10th who had originally moved to the left toward this second hill and had worked their way in groups slipping through the tall grass and bushes, crawling when casualties came too often, courageously facing a sleet of bullets, and now hung against the steep southern declivity ready to spring the few remaining yards into the teeth of the enemy.
There was a moment's lull and our line moved forward to the charge across the valley separating the two hills.
Once begun it continued dauntless in its steady, dogged, persistent advance until like a mighty resistless challenge it dashed triumphant over the crest of the hill and firing a parting volley at the vanishing foe planted the silken standard on the enemy's breastworks and the Stars and Stripes over the block house on San Juan Hill to stay.
The troopers had be- 50 SOLDIER ON THE FRONTIERS haved so gallantly that, Pershing said, their officers "could have taken our black heroes in our arms.
Next day the U.
On the following day the fate of the Spanish forces in Santiago was sealed when the enemy fleet was destroyed hi attempting to escape from the harbor.
A truce halted the fighting around the land defenses of the city, but "the rainy season had set in in earnest and the trenches at times were knee-deep with mud and water.
The constant exposures to the heat and rain together read article the strain of battle began to have its effect upon even the strongest of us.
Our sick list gradually grew and the dreaded yellow fever appeared in our ranks; the field hospitals already overcrowded with wounded were compelled to accommodate the increasing number of fever patients; medical supplies and food for the sick were lacking.
Santiago was bombarded for two days by the U.
The Spanish finally capit- ulated on July 16.
In his account of the campaign, Pershing neglected to mention his own role in the fighting.
It was not, however, ignored by his com- rades.
Lieutenant John Bigelow, Jr.
Whit, commanding the Second Squadron, informed the Adjutant General's office hi his report dated November 28, 1898, that Pershing "was with the Second Squadron when passed on Sugar House Hill and during its advance on San Juan Hill he conducted himself in a most gallant and efficient manner.
Young, a Civil War veteran, declared that Pershing was "the coolest man under fire that I ever saw.
Within a month Pershing was ordered back to Washington to duty in the War Department.
His have blackjack heated vest review nonsense! post, assumed on August 18, was chief ordnance officer, which he held until December 20.
Then he was assigned to organize the Bureau of Insular Affairs, which was to oversee the military administration of the islands wrested from the Spanish.
As head of this military government bureau, he fell under the close and favorable attention of Elihu Root, the prosperous New York law- yer who was appointed Secretary of War to succeed Russell A.
Alger, the moribund condition of the War Department having been harshly revealed to President McKinley in the supply, organization, and di- rection of the Cuban campaign.
Root was a deceptive man, mild and modest in appearance, with his hair worn in thick bangs over an in- tellectual forehead.
But underneath the detached and professorial manner was an incisive and ruthlessly efficient mind; only occasionally his face relaxed in what one associate called a "frank and murderous smile.
Captain Pershing intrigued him immediately, not only be- cause a soldier with a law degree was such a rarity but for his plain speaking and his contempt for bureaucratic quibbles.
Root found that Pershing was the rare officer who could carry out a directive without delay or confusion, who was willing to make decisions and assume responsibility without buck passing.
Together they confronted the problem of the corruption and scandal in the military government of Havana and worked on plans for the pacification of the Philippines, where native guerrillas, having expected total liberation once the Spanish were driven out, now were organizing an insurrection against the American occupation.
Chair-borne duty, however, proved irksome after eight months as chief of the Bureau of Insular Affairs, no matter how rewarding was 52 SOLDIER ON THE FRONTIERS his association with Elihu Root.
He requested a transfer to active duty in the Philippines, which was granted.
Late in 1899 he sailed for Manila the long way around, via Eng- land, the Suez Canal, the Indian Ocean, and the Straits of Malacca.
During a stop-off of several weeks in England, he was astounded by the business-as-usual atmosphere while a bitterly difficult war was being fought against the Boers in South Africa.
One of the first places he decided to visit was the famous Woolwich Arsenal, which he imag- ined would be guarded by at least a regiment armed to the teeth, not reckoning with the supreme self-confidence of the British.
At the arsenal he strolled through an open and unguarded gateway and soon was looking over "large quantities of military stores" which any Boer agent or saboteur seemingly would have been able to destroy read article a minimum of effort.
A guard finally sauntered up and asked him his business.
Per- shing playfully admitted he had no business there and was evasive in his replies to the guard's questions.
He arrived in Manila aboard the hospital ship Missouri, then took a coastal steamer for Zamboanga, on the island of Mindanao.
There, in the rebellious southern islands, his future lay.
For the best part of the next fourteen years, campaigning against the toughest jungle fight- ers in the world, he would be tried, trained, and hardened in the harsh school of the colonial soldier.
Against the Gong-Maddened Moros Damn, damn, damn the Filipino, Pockmarked kodiac ladrone; Underneath the starry flag Civilize him with a Krag And return us to our beloved home.
American soldiers' song to the tune of "Tramp, Tramp, Tramp" No longer, deadlier, or stranger war was ever fought by the American Army, in proportion to the numbers involved, than the intermittent jungle campaigns between 1900 and 1914 against the Moros of the southern Philippines.
It attracted comparatively little attention in the United States except when fighting would break out around the Moro forts in the mountain jungles and stateside humanitarians would pro- test the "massacre" of native dissidents by American troops indoc- trinated with the "civilize 'em with a Krag" 1 philosophy.
Though the Moro campaigns are one of the least-known phases of United States military history, they served as the proving ground for many of the leading commanders in World War I, not the least of them John J.
Captain Pershing arrived in the Philippines just as he turned forty a trim, energetic, and inobtrusively ambitious officer who had left important friends in Washington and brought with him impressive x That is, with a Krag-Jorgensen rifle, then learn more here standard issue for the Regular Army.
His first assignment, de- spite his eagerness to serve in a troop command, was adjutant general of the Department of Mindanao and Jolo, with headquarters at Zamboanga, the recently vacated seat of Spanish military power in the southern islands.
The department, known as the Moro Province under civil administration, embraced the islands of Mindanao, Ba- silan, Jolo, Tawitawi, and many smaller nameless ones in the palm- shaded and coral-shored chain which marked the dividing line between the Sulu and Celebes seas.
On August 20, 1901, he was trans- ferred to the 15th Cavalry, again as a staff officer, this time wearing the hats of chief engineer, ordnance and signal officer, and collector of customs at Zamboanga.
On October 1 1 of that year, finally, he broke away from desk duty and was given command of the post at Iligan, on the north coast of Mindanao.
During the irksome months of staff duty he busied himself learning everything he could about the Moros and their customs, applying him- self with the same diligence as he had more than a dozen years earlier in Apache country.
He learned to speak the Moro dialects and to read Arabic, studied the rambling texts of the Koran, and mingled on friendly terms with the tamer Moros living in the coastal towns.
Almost from the outset he saw that if the occupying forces several thousand troops against more than a half million natives in the Moro Province tried to suppress certain native proclivities there would be more trouble than a few regiments could handle.
Piracy, slavery, and polygamy were part of the Moro's life; slaughtering the Christians or any other brand of infidel was not murder but a passport to the Mo- hammedan heaven.
Barbaric as his customs seemed to the white man, the Moro had established his own kind of civilization in the southern seas dating back six centuries, and it would take more than gunfire, sermonizing, and the lure of indoor plumbing to persuade him to change his ways if it could ever be done.
The best the Americans could hope for was to establish a minimum amount of order and to introduce a more democratic system of law.
Early in his stay in the Philippines, Pershing wrote a rather percep- tive description of the Moro character and its resistance to change.
In order to control him other than by brute force, one must first win his implicit confidence, nor is this as difficult AGAINST THE GONG-MADDENED MOROS 55 as it would seem.
He is jealous of his religion, but he knows very little about its teachings.
As long as he is undisturbed in the possession of his women and children, and his slaves, there is little to fear from him.
As a rule he treats his so-called slaves, who are really but serfs or vassals, as members of his family; but any interference with what he thinks his right regarding them had best be made grad- ually by the natural process of development, which must logically come by contact with and under the wise supervision of a civilized people.
Since the Spanish fleet had been destroyed and Manila occupied in the summer of 1898, Luzon and the other islands to the north were slowly being brought under control.
Emilio Agui- naldo, the leader of the insurrection on Luzon, was not captured until March 23, 1901.
On Samar, a particularly vigorous guerrilla leader named Lucban wiped out almost an entire company of U.
Throughout the islands the American troops con- trolled little more than their posts and garrison towns and their lines of communication; they were surrounded by guerrillas and a popu- lation almost entirely sympathetic to them.
The Filipinos had decided to resist the decision to replace Spanish rule with a somewhat gentler but not much less irksome American administration.
In a period of little more than three years the American Army in the Philippines was forced to engage in 2811 separate battles and actions.
The insurrection slowly flickered out first on Luzon and the northern islands, as civil administrators, doctors, teachers, sanitation and nutrition experts came out from the States by the thousands.
A policy of patient instruction seemed to work best.
On Samar, for in- stance, General Jacob "Hell Roaring" Smith decided to take revenge for the massacre of the infantry company at Balangiga and ordered his subordinates, "I want no prisoners.
I wish you to kill and burn; the more you kill and burn the better you will please me.
The result was a long drawn-out struggle finally resolved by gentler measures.
The Moro country, being largely Mohammedan while the other is- lands had been converted by the Spanish friars to the Catholic faith, was a different and more difficult problem.
The Moros, like the Taga- 56 SOLDIER ON THE FRONTIERS logs, Visayans, and other Filipino peoples, were of Malay stock.
Mo- hammedanism, giving them a fighting creed, made the difference.
It was imported to the southern Philippines in the latter part of the fourteenth century by adventurers from the Javanese Empire of Ma- japahit.
In 1490, thirty years before Magellan "discovered" the Phil- ippines, Mindanao and the Sulu Islands were ruled by Arab-Malay nobles from the royal houses of Borneo and Malacca.
When the Spanish came, they were able to subjugate Luzon and the northern islands after a long and continuing struggle, but in the south they were confined to Zamboanga, a few other strongly fortified posts, and a garrison on the mountain-girded Lake Lanao.
Even for those places they had to fight continuously, since Mohammedan mission- aries kept the Moro tribes in a constant ferment of resistance.
In the Sulu and Celebes seas, meanwhile, the Moro pirates in their swift vintas reaped a rich harvest of booty for centuries; the island of Jolo served as their thieves' market, at which the men they captured were sold into slavery and the women were parceled out to various Moro harems.
In their attempt to gain control over the Moro Province without open hostilities, the Americans negotiated a very tentative agreement with the Sultan of Sulu and some lesser dignitaries, called the Bates Treaty, in which the sultanate was defined as a "protected sovereignty" under the benign guidance of the United States.
This agreement, however, covered only about a third of the Moros and did not include the island of Mindanao.
The real ruler of the Moros, as the Americans learned, was not the Sultan of Sulu at this web page stronghold on the island of Jolo, but the tribal chiefs the datus and panglimas and the Mohammedan priests panditas who governed their people under a feudal system which gave them the power of life and death over their subjects.
When the Americans began occupying the coastal towns of Mindanao and other islands, the less amiable Moros started moving inland, leaving the coast to the minority groups of Christian Filipinos and a scattering of pagan tribes who had suffered for centuries from their depredations.
Fiercely independent, warlike on land or sea, the bulk of the Moros were determined to live their own way criminal, violent, and barbaric as it seemed to the Spanish and the Americans, who hoped to instill in them Occidental law and Christian ethic and resist any attempts to AGAINST THE GONG-MADDENED MOROS 57 impose changes.
Their code of laws included the following provisions: "If a bachelor or widower commits adultery and is killed by a non- Mohammedan, the non-Mohammedan shall be put to death.
But a Mohammedan who may kill such an adulterer shall not be put to death.
The punishment of the man may be reduced to imprisonment.
The woman shall be buried up to the chest and stoned with medium-sized stones.
If a slave or other servant kills a free man, he shall be put to death.
The Americans managed to abolish slavery and break up the slave markets in the relatively small areas under their direct control, but there was no abolition in the mountain jungles, where the tribal chiefs were beyond the application of force.
From their mountain strongholds, the Moros were soon sallying forth and raiding the coastal towns, carrying off cattle and human captives.
Brigadier General William A.
Kobbe, then commanding the De- partment of Mindanao and Jolo, decided that a punitive expedition up the Cagayan River on the north coast of Mindanao would be neces- sary to show that the Americans meant business.
A General Capi- strano was reported to be leading the Macajambos of the Cagayan district hi their raids.
The column of infantry and cavalry, with a few mountain guns hauled on pack mules, was to capture Capistrano, scatter his warriors, and seize his fort on the lip of a mountain gorge.
Since this was the first column to invade the interior, General Kobbe wanted exact and detailed reports on its progress and achievements.
The expedition took the field on November 27, 1900, moving slowly and laboriously up the Cagayan, cutting a road through the ascending jungle, moving over plains of shoulder-high cogon grass and fields of giant ferns.
As they climbed into the foothills, the Americans became aware of the fact that they were being watched every foot of the way and that it would be easy enough for the Moros to ambush them with their blowguns and poisoned darts.
The Moros, however, held off their attack, possibly out of curiosity at the sight of these white men toiling so ridiculously at traversing country over which they moved with the ease and swiftness of understand computer blackjack amusing animals.
The spectacle must have become even more hilarious to the watching Moros as the moun- tain howitzers had to be unloaded from muleback and hauled by hand over the steep and treacherous mountain trails.
When the American column approached the 800-foot gorge in which their fort was located, the Macajambos finally launched their attack.
Some of General Capistrano's followers were concealed in the brush at the bottom of the canyon when the American cavalrymen watered their horses on the afternoon of December 17 and began firing from ambush.
The cavalrymen took cover while the infantry went to work.
Captain Pershing, although detailed to go with the column as an observer, immediately took a hand in the fire fight.
Mays of the 40th Infantry.
Terrified by the bombardment, the Moros fled into the jungle and managed to escape Captain Mays's patrols.
By the afternoon of December 18, it was obvious that the Macajambos had given up the fight and scattered into the mountains.
And that was probably the easiest victory ever won by an American field force against the Moro tribes of Mindanao.
Later they would hold to their forts with a bitter courage matched in the American experience only by the Sioux and the Apaches.
AGAINST THE GONG-MADDENED MOROS 59 The Cagayan expedition wrecked the Macajambos's stronghold and destroyed provisions and ammunition found in the fort, as well as two of the brass cannon known as lantacas.
On December 28, near the village of Langaran, a number of insurgents were found to have ven- tured hi from the jungles and occupied a strong position, but just as the Americans deployed to assault it the Moros fled once again.
On February 2, 1901, Captain Pershing wrote General Kobbe that Capistrano, his followers dispersed and disheartened, wanted to come in for a conference with the department commander at Zamboanga and advised that "patrols and expeditionary forces need not be sus- pended but should be warned to be at special pains not to molest unresisting parties of natives.
The suppression of the Macajambos failed to deter other Moro tribes, particularly to the south of Lake Lanao, from contesting the American authority.
American soldiers and civilians were murdered and a number of cavalry horses were stolen by the Malanaos, a group of tribes living in the mountains above and on the shore around the lake.
After much conferring in Manila and Zamboanga, it was de- cided to teach the Malanaos a stern lesson, which would take the shape of a large punitive force, a thousand cavalry and infantry troops, to be commanded by Colonel Frank D.
Baldwin, who had twice won the Medal of Honor in the Civil and Indian Wars.
There were two approaches to the lake district, from Iligan on the north coast, roughly the route taken by the Cagayan River expedition, or up from Mala- bang on the south coast.
Neither was easy, since the lake was 2500 feet above sea level and the intervening country was a tangle of jungle, mountain, and cogon-covered plateau.
While Baldwin's column moved up from Malabang, Captain Per- shing was placed in command of the post at Iligan.
He had made a number of friends among the Moros of northern Mindanao and was expected to play a semi-diplomatic role.
Holding court at Iligan, he encouraged the chiefs of neighboring tribes to come in and talk to him.
He explained to each of them that Baldwin's operations were aimed at the Sultan of Bayan and his supporters, not against Moros of the north who were presently keeping the peace.
Pershing's efforts doubtless persuaded many Moros to stay out of the Sultan of Bayan's camp and lessened the dangers of Colonel Bald- 60 SOLDIER ON THE FRONTIERS win's venture, since there were close to 300,000 2 Moros living in the lake country according to a Spanish estimate.
In due course, Colo- nel Baldwin assaulted the Sultan of Bayan's stronghold at Pandatahan and carried the place after a hard fight.
An estimated 200 to 300 Moros were killed, including the sultans of Bayan and Pandatahan.
With evident disapproval, Pershing later commented on this opera- tion, "I think Colonel Baldwin wanted to shoot the Moros first and give them the olive branch afterwards.
Pershing was summoned to Camp Vicars in the spring of 1902 to act as Baldwin's intelligence officer and acquaint check this out self with the command.
His superiors had decided on larger responsi- bilities for Pershing, since General Kobbe was soon to be replaced by Brigadier General George W.
Davis and Baldwin was to be pro- moted to brigadier and sent elsewhere.
There were plenty of senior officers waiting around Manila and Zamboanga to assume the command at Camp Vicars, which ordinar- ily would have gone to a full colonel certainly not a junior captain.
But his superiors had settled on Pershing for the post, and he had enough highly placed friends in Washington, up to and including President Roosevelt, to override the rigid system of seniority obtaining at the time.
General Davis wrote the War Department that the assign- ment of Pershing to command at Camp Vicars was necessary because "the man to command on the spot should possess certain qualities not easy to find confined in one man: capacity for command, physical and mental vigor, infinite patience in dealing with these fanatical semi- savages, wise discretion, a serious desire to accomplish work set for him, and knowledge of the Moro character.
A groan of protest went up from the Army in the Philippines, particularly from officers above the grade of captain, as always when sacrosanct seniority was flouted.
The appointment was attributed to "pull," and the fact that Pershing had studiously pre- pared himself for greater responsibility by learning the Moro dialects 2 A short time later, however, Pershing estimated the Moro population around the lake at 80,000.
AGAINST THE GONG-MADDENED MOROS 61 and acquainting himself with the people while most iphone app blackjack counting his fellow offi- read article were lolling at their ease in cantonments by the Sulu Sea, accepting drinks from native servants bearing brass trays, was disregarded.
From then on, a certain amount of professional jealousy evidenced itself dur- ing every succeeding phase of Pershing's career, a spiteful quality no less virulent among the military than operatic tenors; he was to be a marked man in more ways than one, and the envy generated by the Camp Vicars appointment was to burst out several years later in a particularly nasty form.
The Manila Times took notice of the dissatisfaction in army circles and remarked that the appointment was "very freely discussed in the service, and the men who rank him have been greatly displeased.
He is only a captain and the size of his force is out of all proportion to his rank.
Chaffee, commanding in Manila, and General Da- vis, at Zamboanga, "has not hesitated to continue him in the place.
Captain Robert Lee Bullard, who had been in the class ahead of Pershing's at West Point and who was then also serving on Mindanao, remarked that Pershing deserved the post because he was "very influential" with the Moros and had won their "confidence and admiration.
Pershing's influence began to lead them toward the American authorities.
This was accomplished, of course, by a species of military jugglery, but it was amply justified by the conditions.
Ill-judged treat- ment of friendly Moros by an officer of mine had nearly precipitated a general war with the Moros.
Most of the regulars believed they should be ruled at least as firmly, as haughtily, as the British reigned over the teeming masses of India; you had to keep them at a distance, convince them of the white man's superiority, draw an unwavering line between the sa- hib and the native.
Pershing, however, proceeded to deal with the Moros if not quite as equals, at least as fellow human beings.
He spent hours every day receiving their delegations a datu under a silken sunshade accom- panied by a number of retainers endlessly explaining to them the purposes of the American occupation and pointing out that if they were willing to till their lands peacefully they could make the island one of the most bountiful in the world.
He also contrived to mingle with them on social terms, then and later in his Philippine career, with an ease and lack of condescension rarely attained by other American officers or civilian governors of that period.
One of the Moro enthusiasms was for playing chess, which had been taught them by the Arab missionaries.
Pershing would squat on the ground for hours studying software blackjack learning chessboard with visiting datus.
He also invited article source of his Moro neighbors to please click for source a Fourth of July celebration at Camp Vicars in the summer of 1902, encouraging his men to mingle with the guests and show them a common humanity.
In the vigorously colonizing world of 1902, laboring under Kip- lingesque delusions of white supremacy, this sort of person-to-person socializing was a radical and possibly dangerous departure from the proper way of doing things.
Despite all his diplomacy and hospitality, a number of sultans in the lake region refused to come in and parley with Pershing.
The sultans of Maciu, of Bacolod, of Bayabao, and of Calabui, and the lesser datus and panglimas who sympathized with them, now saw quite clearly that their authority over the tribes would be sharply reduced if they submitted to the Sultan of Camp Vicars.
They had no intention of sharing their ancient powers with an American officer.
It was time to discourage his attempts to pacify the lake country.
He was not easily dissuaded that peaceful methods would work and AGAINST THE GONG-MADDENED MOROS 63 even used what must have seemed like white witchcraft to impress the natives.
A number of Moro chiefs, on the verge of warring among themselves, were summoned to a peace conference but balked at signing a treaty.
Pershing ordered his aides to bring in an Edison "talk- ing machine," which had just been developed and put on the market back in the States.
Helen Gould, the daughter of financier Jay Gould, had purchased ten of the machines and presented them to the Army for recreational purposes.
One of these had been sent to the Philip- pines and was passed along, by coastal steamer and pack train, to Camp Vicars.
Pershing played a musical selection, which only bored the Moros, who regarded tjieir own gong, cymbal, and bamboo flute music as superior.
Then he put a cylinder titled "A Day at the Farm" on the machine.
The sounds of an American barnyard delighted his guests, but they still refused to sign the treaty.
Pershing nodded to another officer, and a moment later two order- lies appeared.
One carried a dead pig, the other a bucket of spreadsheet counting blackjack card blood.
More than anything else, the Moros feared contamination by a pig, which would bar them from the Mohammedan heaven.
Pershing scooped up a dipper of the blood, enough to spatter the whole assem- blage, then pointed to the treaty.
There was no further argument from the chiefs.
One by one they stepped forward and agreed to the treaty.
These various techniques, friendly and forcible, proved their value in the hard campaigning ahead.
Pershing had only 700 men under his command and could have been blackjack der bodyguard stream out in the coming year of march- ing and fighting if the thousands of Malanaos in the lake districts de- cided to rise up against him.
Almost every day, as the summer of 1902 waned, it became appar- ent that the dissident tribes could not be kept under control without more vigorous measures.
As a warrior people, they respected only those who would make war on them.
At night Camp Vicars was virtually under siege.
There was not a tent in the camp that had no bullet holes.
Rifles were stolen, the telegraph line to Malabang was cut and a mile of wire carried off, and soldiers coming up the trail from that southern base were attacked.
Evans, the naval hero, came up from Malabang to visit Pershing's headquarters and sat up all night with a rule in his lap while Moro snipers banged away at the trail camp.
He was hardly comforted by the words of a sergeant click here to his escort, "Don't mind them, sir.
The Moros shoot at the tents at night, but they don't hit you.
The following morning the Moro was found dead with his heavy kris strapped to his wrist.
Pershing repeatedly warned his officers to go directly from the camp to the outposts and back on their nightly rounds.
A lieutenant who disobeyed this order was shot through the sleeve by a corporal who fired at the officer's silhouette on just click for source skyline.
Pershing sent for the corporal, who was "pale with anxiety" over having shot at an officer, and congratulated him on "the way you car- ried out your orders.
If the lieutenant had been killed, it go here have been his own fault.
Before the campaigning started, however, he assured the peaceful Moros that the military operations were aimed only at the re- bellious sultans and datus who "must some day suffer the conse- quences of their stubborn ignorance.
On September 28 he set out at the head of his column, heading for the stronghold of the Sultan of Maciu, one of the most intransigent of those bent on rebellion.
The AGAINST THE GONG-MADDENED MOROS 65 sultan had reason for confidence, holding a strong position on the southern shore of Lake Lanao.
Several hundred of the Maciu tribe, including women and children, who always entered the cottas forts of their men and fought at their side, were holed up on a small penin- sula jutting into the lake.
To reach it, Pershing would have to cross an all but impenetrable swamp or haul boats through the jungle and at- tack from the water that enclosed the fort on three sides.
Pershing de- cided on the former alternative.
His engineers cut down the huge hardwood trees of the jungle and corduroyed a road through the swamp, a job that took almost two weeks to accomplish.
Then learn more here pushed his assault lines forward, placing them within a few hundred yards of the steep slopes of the cotta and bringing up his battery of mountain guns.
The fort itself would be a hard nut to crack.
It was surrounded by a moat and had walls ten feet thick.
Inside were fighting-mad Moros armed with rifles, wavy-bladed krises, cleaverlike barongs, heavy campilans swords that had to be swung with both hands and could lop a man's head off with one blowbolos, and brass cannons.
Pershing demanded the fort's surrender, but the Sultan of Maciu responded by unfurling his red battle flags.
Calmly confident, according to a correspondent for the Manila Times who had accompanied the punitive force, Pershing prepared to accept the challenge.
He had already decided on the tactics necessary for storming a Moro fort with a minimum of casualties: his troops would invest the place, then the howitzers would plaster it with shrap- nel, and after that would come the direct assault.
On the afternoon of October 11, Pershing ordered the bombard- ment to begin.
The Manila Times correspondent told of interviewing Captain Pershing "as we sat together on a rice dyke a hundred yards from the Sultan of See more formidable stronghold" while the shells arched overhead.
To whip up their courage, the Moros raised an immense clangor with their war gongs, the reverberations almost drowning out the other sounds of battle.
F and M Companies, 27th Infantry, to the east, G Company to the west, and C Company to the south, the latter backed up by the battery of mountain guns now loaded with canister for point- blank fire.
He warned each of his company commanders to be ready for a wild night attack on their lines.
Shortly before midnight the Moros proved that he had guessed their intentions exactly.
The American infantry was waiting to mow them down.
They fired by the volley, perfectly dis- ciplined, as the shrieking, gong-clanging horde swept down on them.
The gunners blasted scrap metal at them from close range, firing over the sights of their pack howitzers.
Wildly as they fought to escape, the Moros couldn't make a dent in the American lines.
In less than half an hour, they called off their attack and crept back into their battered fort, leaving twenty dead hi the bloody grass but hauling away their wounded.
Next morning not a sound came from the splintered bamboo pali- sades of the cotta.
With a few exceptions, the Moros of Maciu had managed to escape during the night to the north of the fort, the water side, by wading chin-deep along the shore until they were clear of the American lines.
The exceptions were several white-robed men, who came screaming out of the fort, waving their barongs and trying to cut down the nearest American soldiers.
They were shot down before they could harm any of the Americans.
These men, according to an old Mohammedan custom, had gone juramentado, had run amuck after promising their priests to kill as many white men as they could before they died.
A juramentado would shave his head and eyebrows, bind his waist, ask the priest for his blessing, and then sally forth on an errand of sane- AGAINST THE GONG-MADDENED MOROS 67 tified murder; in return for killing all the infidels in reach he was prom- ised swift transportation to the Mohammedan heaven and its black- eyed houris.
The Moros used juramentado as a weapon of terror, which kept the occupying forces, whether Spanish or American, in a constant state of dread.
Soon soldiers had to go armed everywhere and be prepared at any time of day or night to fend off such an at- tack, whether in the towns or out in the country.
Pershing estimated that his provisional force had killed fifty Moros and wounded another fifty in the Maciu operation.
The Moros, how- ever, managed to carry off most of their dead and all of their wounded.
During the next week, Pershing marched his troops around the southern shore of Lake Lanao, occupying various villages and show- ing the Moro chiefs that he could be firm, fair-minded, and friendly all at once.
His troops were kept under the tightest discipline, with harsh penalties for any who neglected sanitation in a country where tropical diseases were always endemic, and for those who tried to buy, seduce, or force their attentions on the Moro women.
Sentries were instructed to stand up under all kinds of abuse from the natives with- out firing unless they were physically attacked.
Any soldiers who got out of line quickly learned that "Black Click at this page was an admirable sobriquet for Pershing.
The Moros were acquiring a certain respect for Pershing.
Being a warrior race, they could only admire his conquest of the Maciu penin- sula, even though a number of their fellows were killed as a result of it.
Aside from demonstrating his ability as a fighter, however, Pershing convinced the Moros that he did not mean to steal their cattle, trifle with their women, or deal too arbitrarily with their customs.
The Ma- nila Times was particularly enthusiastic over "the Captain's attitude towards the customs of the people.
He points out that through the course of centuries certain of them became rooted in the lives of the people and we cannot expect to tear up and destroy them in a day.
A cholera epidemic broke out among the natives and 1500 of them died in the space of a few weeks.
Pershing sent medicines and instructions for their use to the rancherias where the cholera was particularly viru- lent.
Almost at the same time, the new Sultan of Bayan, undismayed 68 SOLDIER ON THE FRONTIERS by his predecessor's defeat and death only a year before at Pandatahan, was making warlike gestures from his new cotta crowning an almost inaccessible slope.
Pershing let it be known that he was preparing an expedition against him, and a few days later Pandita Sjiducimen, the high priest of Bayan, came down the mountainside to negotiate on behalf of the sultan.
Then the sultan himself, accompanied by retainers in tight red pants with gold buttons down the side, appeared at Camp Vicars to talk peace and "see the stronghold of the white chief.
Accompanied by an escort of infantry and a battery of artillery, Pershing smilingly presented himself at the Sultan of Bayan's craggy headquarters.
Since there was no gate in the fort, he and his compan- ions had to climb over the walls on ladders.
Once there, he raised the United States flag over the fort and fired a twenty-one gun salute.
The Moros were especially impressed with the booming artillery, as Pershing had intended.
The sultan, no less impressed, asked Pershing to become the adopted father of his wife.
Pershing also adopted four children of the tribe, one of whom he described as "a bright, clean little fellow who has the airs of a Prince of Wales.
He was to be consecrated a datu "by the law and rites of the Koran," making him a tribal chieftain, blood relative, and counselor of the Moros of Bayan.
Never before and never again would a Christian be made a Moslem prince.
With a grave, Moro-like dignity, he submitted himself to the consecration ceremony, possibly wondering what his old Sunday- school teacher in Laclede would have thought of him in that heathen circle.
Pershing, as one of his officers observed, "unflinchingly returned the embrace and kiss on each cheek of the Datu Sadji," even though the datu "had a thick black beard and chewed betel nut.
The sacred Koran was placed on a mat of native fiber in the center click to see more this circle, guarded by just click for source aged Mohammedan priest, gorgeous in trousers of all colors and a yel- low silk upper garment, over whose head a slave held a beautiful silk sunshade.
Silver boxes, beautifully engraved, containing betel nut were passed around the circle and then the speechmaking began, each chief in turn giving his opinion.
At the conclusion, all the rulers read article myself, placing our hands upon the Koran, registered a vow of eternal friendship, allegiance to the United States, and agreed upon a cessation of warfare against each other.
Slaving, raiding, and cattle stealing were be- ing pursued without hindrance.
Pershing decided that a vigorous cam- paign would be necessary in the spring of 1903, and headquarters at Zamboanga, where Brigadier General S.
Sumner was about to succeed General Davis, concurred in his plan.
Pershing was confident that he could cope with whatever forces the Moros of the western lake district might muster against him.
With 600 warriors ranged in cottas on the mountains overlooking 70 SOLDIER ON THE FRONTIERS the western shore, the Sultan of Bacolod was in a particularly defiant mood.
The Spanish had tried many times to break into his strong- hold but always failed.
At the approach of the American column the sultan gathered all his followers from the smaller cottas and prepared to defend the fort of Bacolod, which was surrounded by a moat forty feet deep and thirty-five feet wide and presented walls of earth and bamboo twenty feet wide.
Pershing left Camp Vicars with his composite force late in March and on April 6 appeared in battle formation before the fort of Baco- lod.
The sultan was insultingly brief when Pershing demanded a sur- render: "Come and get me if you can.
Many were equipped with old muzzle-loaders, others with krises and campilans.
They show- ered darts and spears on Americans venturing too close to the walls.
The first problem in breaching the position would be to bridge the deep moat.
Under heavy fire from the fort, Pershing's engineers cut down trees so they would fall across the wide ditch and filled in the open spaces with brush and native huts uprooted from their founda- tions.
Several such bridges were built under a covering fire from their own men to enable the attacking infantry and dismounted cavalry to engage the defenders on the parapet and hi tutorial c# blackjack game trenches.
Early in the afternoon of April 8 Pershing gave the signal for the assault to begin.
His troops charged across the bridges, over the moat and onto the walls, boosting each other up foot to shoulder or climb- ing up ropes attached to grappling irons.
On the parapet American bayonets parried, clashed, and thrust aside Moro swords.
The moun- tain guns fired over the heads of the American troops into the center of the fort, isolating the defenders on the walls and in the trenches.
For thirty minutes, with approximately equal numbers on each side, the Americans and the Moros fought it out.
A bursting shell set fire to part of the fort.
The American assault line advanced methodically through the stronghold, doing the job of killing as professionally and mechanically as a McCormick reaper.
The Moros rushed at this hedgehog of bayonets with a fanatical courage, but in half an hour it was all over.
The bamboo fort continue reading bursting with flame and explod- ing gunpowder.
Many of the defenders fled, or fell, under volleys from the American riflemen.
In the confusion no one was able to AGAINST THE GONG-MADDENED MOROS 71 count the Moro casualties, but as Pershing reported to General Sum- ner at Malabang by field telegraph, "Sixty dead bodies were counted on one floor of the fort.
Without any undue modesty he also reported to General Sumner, "As- sault carefully planned and perfectly executed.
Fort could have been taken in no other way.
Troops hi good condition.
Am pre- paring to push on this morning.
Anticipate opposition at Calani.
Cholera struck the command soon after it left Bacolod, and seven men died along the way.
At Calani the expected opposition did not materialize, and Pershing telegraphed the base at Malabang, "Moros along route this side Calani turned out in large numbers to meet us and escort us through their rancherias.
Effect of expedition greater than anticipated.
At Taraca, where the Datu Ampuan held sway, the fighting was especially bitter.
Pershing described it hi an afteraction report tele- graphed to headquarters on May 5: "Here stubborn opposition was encountered.
We attacked the fort of Datu Ampuan which was cov- ered with red flags.
Firing on part of Moros began from number of small cottas to our right and left which were promptly taken and de- stroyed.
Right flank of two companies of infantry under Grade and Shaw was then strung down Taraca River, driving out Moros and capturing cotta on north side, killing 115 Moros, wounding thirteen and capturing twenty-three prisoners.
This morning at daylight Moros surrendered twenty-nine in number, among them Ampuan and a number of datus.
Total cannon and lantaka cap- tured thirty-six, some very large cannon, and sixty rifles.
Our loss was 72 SOLDIER ON THE FRONTIERS one killed and seven wounded.
I shall push on from here as soon as possible, probably today.
Command is in good health, no cholera.
The completion of the Lake Lanao operations, at a cost of less than a score of American lives, including those who died of cholera, caught the imagination of the people back home.
Editorial writers compared his march around Lake Lanao with Jeb Stuart's ride around the Union Army.
An interview with Henry Savage Landor, the famous Tibetan explorer and correspondent for the London Mall, who had accompanied Pershing on the campaign and told a Hong Kong news- paper that the captain was a "military genius," was picked up and published in many American papers.
The manner in which he conducted the Bacolod campaign entitled him to a high place among the military commanders of the world.
On May 11, Secretary of War Root cabled General Sumner, "Express to Captain Pershing and officers and men under his command the thanks of the War Department for their able and effective accomplishment of a difficult and important task.
Generals Davis and Sumner, under whom he had served, and Generals Arthur Murray and Leonard Wood wrote letters to the War Department urging his promotion.
Secretary of War Root took the rather unusual step of allowing an officer in the War Department to release for publication a letter Pershing had written him describing the victory at Bacolod and the wild melee just click for source the para- pet when his troops stormed the fort: ".
Here they were met with campilan and kris," Pershing wrote rather excitedly, "and a bloody hand-to-hand fight occurred one soldier against two Moros here, an- other running his bayonet into a fanatic there, Moros plunging head- long into the ditch in their impetuosity and impetus.
Several years would pass before his return to the Blackjack cell phone games country.
On his arrival in the States, he found himself acclaimed a national hero by the newspapers.
When he stopped in Lincoln to visit his sister Bessie Mrs.
Butlerthe cadet battalion at the university, now called the Pershing Rifles, turned out in his honor.
He also stopped off at Chicago, where his parents were living; his mother had just recov- ered from an illness so severe that she was not told of his Mindanao campaigns until his force returned safely to Camp Vicars.
Then he continued on his way to Washington, where he was to be one of the social lions of the season, a full-fledged celebrity in a society domi- nated by the hero-loving President Roosevelt, who was to summon him to his office one day solely for the purpose of being introduced to the leading prize fighters of a past era, Jake Kilrain and John L.
Sulli- van, as "our leading military fighter.
Promotion and Scandal While Pershing was campaigning against the Moros in the rugged in- terior of Mindanao, an equally lively if less bloody battle was being waged in Washington to modernize the staff and command system governing the Army.
The Cuban expedition and to a lesser degree the Philippine occupation had exposed the moribund condition of the War Department as it sputtered, misfired, and labored to function under the various bureau chiefs.
Secretary of War Root, forward-looking and self-assured enough to brave the outcries of those intrenched in the outmoded bureaus and their vociferous political supporters, pushed through a plan to reorganize the Army under a General Staff.
Root had been deeply impressed by a document compiled by the late Major General Emory Upton subsequently published under the title Military Policy of the United States which analyzed the defects of the United States military establishment and proposed setting up a General Staff such as supervised the German operations against France in 1871.
Sherman had endorsed the Upton pro- posals, commenting that "the time may not be now, but will come when these will be appreciated, and may bear fruit even in our day.
Pershing was assigned to the newly established General Staff first under General S.
Young, then under General Adna R.
Chaffee, under both of whom he had served in Cuba and the Philippines.
The first General Staff, including three general officers, four colonels, six lieutenant colonels, twelve majors, and twenty captains, was the cream of the Regular Army, as well as the pet project of President Roosevelt and Secretary of War Root.
President Roosevelt's next objective was the reform of the Army's promotion system.
At that time the President had the right to pro- mote officers of the rank of brigadier or above, but could not touch the ranks between lieutenant and colonel; he could elevate a second lieutenant to brigadier general, subject to confirmation by the Senate, but the most important grades in an officer's career were closed to him.
In those grades, ironclad seniority, promotion by the numbers, was the rule.
Many regulars defended this archaic system on the grounds that promotion by selection would be subjected to political influence, that ambitious officers would be prone to devote more of their time to boot- licking than to soldiering, that men of long and faithful service would be victimized by juniors with political influence leapfrogging over their backs.
President Roosevelt called the system the "triumph of mediocrity over excellence" in his message to Congress of December 7, 1903, and asked for legislation to remedy the situation.
He cited Pershing to illus- trate his point.
The President told Congress: "The only people that are contented with a system of promotion by seniority are those who are contented with the triumph of mediocrity over excellence.
On the other hand, a system which encouraged the exercise of social or political favoritism in promotions would be even worse.
But it would surely be easy to devise a method of promotion from grade in which the opinion of the higher officers of the service upon the candidates should be decisive upon the standing and promotion of the latter.
Moreover, when a man renders such serv- PROMOTION AND SCANDAL 77 ice as Captain Pershing rendered last spring in the Moro campaign, it ought to be possible to reward him without at once jumping him to the grade of brigadier general.
With the prospects of promotion stymied for the time being, Pershing devoted himself to his professional education as a General Staff officer.
He attended the Army War College for a time and served briefly as General Staff officer with the Southwestern Department at Oklahoma City.
In-between he pursued a social career with an almost equal vigor.
From the summer of 1903 to the end of 1904 the society columns of the Washington newspapers frequently listed him as a guest at various socially important dinner parties, balls, garden parties, and official and private receptions.
During this period of dining out, of being lionized by the Washing- ton hostesses, he met the two persons who were to be supremely im- portant in his private and emotional life.
They were Senator Francis E.
Warren of Wyoming and his young daughter, Helen Frances Warren.
Senator Warren, as chairman of the Senate's Military Af- fairs Committee, was one of the most influential men in the capital.
A native of New England, he had served in a Massachusetts regiment during the Civil War and migrated to Wyoming in 1868.
Pioneering in the cattle industry, he made a fortune early in life and turned to politics as a full-time vocation.
He was the territorial governor of Wyoming, then governor of the new state, and finally was sent to the United States Senate in 1890.
Since he was a widower, his daughter, whom everyone called "Frankie," presided as his hostess after graduating from Wellesley in the class of 1903.
The Washington society columnists described her as "an exceedingly graceful girl," with a lively sense of humor and mis- chief.
At Wellesley her classmates recalled that whenever there had been an outbreak of girlish mischief the school authorities always asked first, "Where was Frances Warren?
Pershing met the Warrens at a dinner given by Senator Joseph H.
Millard was a friend of Pershing's dating back to his years on the faculty of the University of Nebraska.
From all accounts it was a case of love at first sight between the lighthearted debutante and the middle-aged captain whose hair was beginning to turn gray at the temples and whose face was still marked by the weariness and illness of almost four years in the Philippines.
There was a dance at Fort Myer which Miss Warren was to attend later that evening, and she asked Pershing if he were going.
At two o'clock that morning Charles E.
Magoon, Pershing's lawyer friend from Strategy proper blackjack who was then serving in the government, was awakened by a banging on his door.
Pershing burst in with the proclamation, "Charlie, I've met the girl I'm going to marry!
I want to get some sleep.
If you're still in love tomorrow, come around and tell me about it.
Brooke and very casually inquired, "Oh, Mrs.
Brooke, do you happen to know Captain Pershing?
Brooke replied, "If you think you could stand the life of an army officer's wife, you couldn't do better than marry Captain Pershing.
In 1904 a girl didn't accept a proposal of marriage, no matter how favorably she looked upon it, without an exhausting period of maidenly indecision.
A man had to expect to be kept "dangling," or he might hold her too cheaply.
Ami- PROMOTION AND SCANDAL 79 able as she was, Frances Warren was determined that Jack Pershing should serve out his full sentence as a frustrated suitor.
Late in December of 1904, approximately a year after their first meeting, Pershing presented her with what amounted to an ultimatum.
He had just been posted to Tokyo as military attache and lost no time in rushing to her side with the news, pointing out that he might be sta- tioned abroad for years.
Their engagement was announced on January 10, 1905, with the wedding set for sixteen days later because of the groom's immediate assignment to his new post.
The newspapers made much of the "Washington romance of the season," and the Philadelphia North American herafded it with a rhyming headline: ARMY'S ONLY DATOO WINS AT LOVE, TOO More than 500 guests attended the wedding in the Epiphany Episco- pal Church, including President Roosevelt and his family, most of the Cabinet, and a large delegation from Congress, the Senate having de- layed its convening tune an hour for the occasion.
The wedding break- fast at the Willard was equally well attended.
Thus, at an age when most men were seeing their children off to college, Jack Pershing had acquired a wife whose background and personality could hardly have been more satisfactory for a rising officer.
Pershing was attrac- tive, unassuming, well-poised, trained from childhood to take an im- portant place in society, check this out to appear at club meetings and afternoon teas when she still wore short frocks.
It was also fruitful, and the tran- sient quality of their home life was well-illustrated by the scattered birthplaces of their four children.
Helen was born in Tokyo on Septem- ber 8, 1906; Anne in Baguio, Luzon, Philippine Islands, March 24, 1908; Francis Warren in Cheyenne, Wyoming, June 24, 1909; and Mary Margaret in Zamboanga, Mindanao, Philippine Islands, on May 20, 1912.
Immediately after the wedding, Captain and Mrs.
Pershing left for 80 SOLDIER ON THE FRONTIERS San Francisco, then embarked for Tokyo.
The voyage across the Pacific served as their honeymoon, since Per- shing had to leave his bride in Tokyo shortly after their arrival.
The Russo-Japanese War was then in its final phase and Pershing was de- tailed to act as one of the American observers in Manchuria.
On land and sea, czarist Russia, her forces dissipated by monstrously incompetent leadership, had been taking a terrible beating.
When the war started in the mountainous wastes of Manchuria on February 5, 1904, the rest of the world expected that the island empire of Japan would be crushed like a bamboo hut under an avalanche.
As the Amer- ican war correspondent Frederick Palmer expressed it, "Russia, the mammoth world power with her giant soldiers, against the little fel- lows who made the pretty lanterns we hung on our lawns for ice-cream parties!
The over- whelming vegas in dollar blackjack of the Japanese, as Major General J.
Fuller A Military History of the Western World has written, sounded "a reveille throughout the East and Asia began to stir in her ancient sleep" a stirring which was to result eventually in the attack on Pearl Harbor, the end of colonialism in Asia, and the rise of Communist China.
Its significance was little understood at the time; even those who witnessed it, for the most part, regarded it as interesting only from the tactical standpoint.
Captain Pershing joined the other foreign military observers with General Kuroki's First Army on the right wing of the Japanese ad- vance into Manchuria just as the two-week battle of Mukden began late in February on a forty-mile front.
By that time the great Russian fortress city of Port Arthur had fallen to the Japanese, and their armies had advanced deep into Manchuria and rolled over the Russians at Liaoyang.
Like the other foreign observers, Pershing found himself in the back- wash of the war.
Hissing politely, the Japanese kept them in the rear areas and would not permit them more than fleeting glimpses of the actual fighting.
The attaches and an equally large group of news- paper correspondents were corralled in separate camps back among the supply trains and ammunition dumps, despite their vigorous and PROMOTION AND SCANDAL 81 continuing protests.
Japanese staff officers would periodically lecture them on the progress of their armies and occasionally take them to a hilltop where they could catch a glimpse of a portion of the distant battle line.
Thus frustrated in their professional concerns, the military attaches of the various countries passed their time in fraternizing with one an- other and with the neighboring war correspondents, among them Richard Harding Davis, Ashmead Bartlett, Frederick Palmer, and novelist-turned-Hearst correspondent Jack London, who compared the courageous advances of the Japanese infantry with those of "South American peccary pigs in their herd charges.
Many of them rose to high command in World War I.
Before Pershing's arrival, Colonel Enoch Crowder, who was to supervise the draft in 1917, and Captain Peyton C.
March, who was to become chief of staff in wartime, were among the American observers.
The British were represented by Major General Ian Hamil- ton, who had distinguished himself in the Boer War and was to com- mand the ill-fated British landing on Gallipoli in 1915, and by Colonel Fowke, who became a lieutenant general and adjutant gen- eral of the British Army.
Colonel Baron Corvisart was the French observer, and Italy was represented by Major Caviglia, who was to command the armies in northern Italy and become War Minister.
Per- shing always remembered Major Caviglia best for "waking us every morning singing Italian opera.
By all odds the most interesting member of the foreign military fraternity was Captain Hoffmann, who may well have been the only original genius raised up by Blackjack der bodyguard stream War I on either side.
As operations officer under Hindenburg and Ludendorff please click for source later as chief of staff of the German armies on the eastern front, he formulated the battle plans which resulted in the crushing defeats of the Russian forces from 1914 to 1918 and even managed to talk down Leon Trotsky and the other Soviet negotiators at Brest-Litovsk, terminating those endless discussions by sending a German Army into the Ukraine.
Hoffmann, 82 SOLDIER ON THE FRONTIERS a hulking, heavy-jawed fellow with a monocle screwed in one eye, was the antithesis of the stiff-backed Junkers who formed the bulk of his officers' corps.
He hated military drill, was a poor horseman and a wretched swordsman, and ridiculed the chivalric pretensions of the proper Prussian officer.
Other foreign observers politely accepted such Japanese excuses as, "The battle is over for today, the enemy is in retreat," or "The Gen- eral thinks you would be more comfortable where you are," when their requests to visit the front were turned down.
Hoffmann's irrita- tion at being secluded from the fighting often burst the bounds of etiquette.
Once he went to General Fujii and requested permission to watch a Japanese attack from a nearby hill, and the Japanese smilingly refused.
Hoffmann lost his temper and reminded Fujii that the Ger- mans had taught the Japanese all they knew about modern war.
But General Fujii quietly repeated, "You may not go," and turned on his heel.
Later he explained to war correspondent Frederick Palmer that "we Japanese are paying for this military infor- mation with our blood; we don't propose to share it with others.
He recalled that Pershing "gave me many surprises in flashes of comment which showed the vast extent of his reading beyond a strictly professional range.
Palmer once invited both Major Von Etzel and Captain Hoffmann to dinner and was somewhat surprised when only the major appeared.
Next day Captain Pershing, with a slightly malicious grin, explained the matter to Palmer: "You are not up on the social relations of my German colleagues.
Your invitation went to Von Etzel as the senior in rank.
So he ac- cepted for himself.
Hoffman would not have gone anyway with Von Etzel or Von Etzel with Hoffmann.
Can you beat it?
The two are liv- PROMOTION AND SCANDAL 83 ing in that little room, sleeping consistently winning at blackjack beds across from each other, and they have not spoken for weeks except when officially necessary.
You'd think they'd have a good bawling out and then make up for convenience's sake, if not their emperor's.
Once Caviglia's pony stumbled, rolled over him, and bent his ceremonial sword into a semicircle.
Springing up in a rage, he re- fused to allow the Japanese officer accompanying him to have the sword repaired.
I'll take it to my King so he shall see the kind of horse the Japanese gave his at- tache to ride and the insults his attache has endured!
Pershing and his colleagues saw the battlefield only after it had been tidied up.
But there were striking lessons in fire power and field fortification apparent even after the mopping up.
Among these were the first employment in battle of mobile heavy artillery, of large complements of machine guns and intricate trench systems pro- tected by barbed wire.
Some of the Manchurian battlefields looked like a rehearsal stage for World War I.
This urge to live made the spade as complementary to rifle as once shield had been to sword.
He meticulously recorded whatever impressions he could gather of the fighting qualities of the combatants, noting the fact that the Japanese infantry hated to under- take night attacks an inhibition they lost by the time World War II came around.
He also drew sketch after sketch of the Japanese pon- toon bridges, of the Russian methods of intrenching and fortifying, of machine-gun positions on both sides, and recorded what Russian pris- oners of war told him.
He was diligent about reporting what he could learn of both combatants' transport, equipment, and morale.
As a mere captain, coming late to the war at that, he did not dwell on the strategic concepts behind the Japanese victory, nor did he see enough of the fighting to be as deeply impressed by the tactical changes wrought by the Manchurian campaigns as Captain Hoffmann and General Hamilton were.
His main concern was, in fact, with the in- dividual soldier on both sides, and with how enthusiastically he went to war.
He was not at all inclined to overrate the Japanese for their victory over the huge but badly generaled Russian war machine which was capped in May by the naval disaster inflicted on the Rus- sians in the straits of Tsushima.
When Frederick Palmer asked him how the American soldier compared with the Japanese, he snorted indignantly, surprised that the question should be raised, "Better!
The American is the best soldier, the best material if well trained.
About seventy percent of the Rus- sian shells fail to burst, probably on account of defective fuses.
Close to the end of the fighting in Manchuria, Pershing and other attaches were invited to a Shinto ritual honoring the Japanese war dead.
Each foreigner was to place a sprig of ever- green on the altar as a mark of respect practise blackjack basic strategy professional condolence.
All the foreign observers but Pershing were present as the ceremony began.
The Airierican correspondents, well aware of his habitual tardiness, asked one another, "Will Pershing be on time?
Just before the attaches stepped forward with their sprigs of ever- green, however, Pershing appeared "doublequicking with a half minute to spare, looking the pattern plate of military form.
Their first child, Helen, was born there Sep- tember 8, 1906, a few weeks before Pershing was recalled to the United States, and they sailed for San Francisco aboard the Empress of Japan.
The Pershings were still en route to San Francisco when President Roosevelt here the announcement that electrified the Army: he was promoting Pershing from captain to brigadier general.
Pershing thus was jumped four grades, over the heads of exactly 862 officers who were senior to him.
Widespread indignation was expressed in army posts from Governors Island to Manila, and many fellow officers never forgave him the promotion, attributing it to the influence of his father-in-law who, they never tired of pointing out, was chairman of the Senate's Military Affairs Committee.
They ignored the fact that President Roosevelt had hinted at the promotion three years earlier, before Pershing had even met Senator Warren learn more here his daughter.
They also overlooked certain precedents for the promotion, such as Leon- ard Wood's elevation from captain in the Medical Corps, Tasker H.
Bliss's from major in the Commissary Department, Albert L.
Mills's 86 SOLDIER ON THE FRONTIERS from cavalry captain, all to the same rank of brigadier, all without provoking anything like as much bitterness.
Much of the newspaper comment and many of the younger army officers were favorably inclined to Pershing's promotion.
Captain Rob- ert Lee Bullard, who was impressed by his work in the Philippines, was "convinced of Pershing's efficiency, notwithstanding the wide criticism of his promotion, notwithstanding the common assertion that it was due to the senatorial influence of his father-in-law," and wrote him a letter of congratulations.
The Columbus Sun commented that "for the extraordinary favor that has been done him, it is not apparent where he has performed the extraordinary service.
Louis Post-Dispatch, in an editorial, listed as "steps of the ladder of promotion" of an ambitious officer "social pull, service in Washington, good luck hi an adventure of doubtful military value.
The new general and his wife returned to the United States on Octo- ber 16, 1906, while the controversy was still going strong.
Pershing himself refrained from making any public statements on his promo- tion, nor did he ever refer to it in any of the diaries and notebooks he kept intermittently at the time.
But the bitterness and backbiting which his promotion aroused undoubtedly left their mark on him, particularly the unmistakably antagonistic attitude of many of his brother officers; and quite probably it was reflected a dozen years hence in his ruthless, if necessary, shaking out of human clinkers in the higher echelons of the American Expeditionary Force in France.
It was characteristic that in the many scrap- books he kept on his career he meticulously preserved all the critical comments as well as the laudatory ones.
With his intensely impersonal attitude, it was also in character that he made no effort to cozen public opinion.
While he was in Washing- PROMOTION AND SCANDAL 87 ton between assignments late in 1906, he came out of a hotel one day and noticed that the doorman was clad in the full-dress uniform of a general officer of the United States Army.
Most officers would proba- bly have been more amused than anything else or at least shrugged it off.
Pershing summoned the nearest policeman and insisted that the doorman be arrested on a charge of impersonating an officer.
During that waiting period he drew some comfort, perhaps, from President Roosevelt's reply to criticism of his promotion: "To pro- mote a man because he married a senator's daughter would be in- famy; to refuse him promotion for the same reason would be equal infamy.
At first it was announced that Per- shing would be sent back to the Philippines to command the Depart- ment of the Visayas in the middle of the island chain, replacing Major General Jesse M.
Lee, who was retiring on January 1, 1907.
This command called for an officer of two-star rank, however, and it was decided to assign him to the almost equally important brigade post at Fort McKinley on Luzon.
It was while the Pershings were on their way to Manila in mid- December that the only personal scandal of Pershing's career broke over his head, obviously an outgrowth of the professional jealousy festering over his promotion.
In an article widely quoted and reprinted in the American news- papers, the Manila American on December 18, 1906, charged that Pershing, while stationed at Zamboanga a half-dozen years earlier, had "lived almost openly" with a Filipino girl named Joaquina Bondoy Ignacio, that he and the girl had set up housekeeping in a nipa cottage near the post.
Pershing, it was charged, had fathered two of Jo- aquina's children, a four-year-old girl named Petronilla, and another child who died in the cholera epidemic of 1902.
She refused to accept, saying that Pershing had always been kind to her and that she would not expose him.
The Chi- cago Journal, reporting from Washington on December 19, only added fuel to their flaming suspicions when it announced that "at least fifty other cases of a similar nature involving army officers" were being investigated and the culprits "may be exposed.
The sweet- hearts live together as long as they wish and then separate.
When Filipino men are one of the parties to this trial contract, they are sup- posed to care for the children, but when American men break the union the offspring are thrown on the mother.
His father-in-law, Senator Warren, told news- papermen in Washington that neither he nor his daughter believed there was any truth in the Manila American's charges.
He explained that earlier that year an anonymous letter had been sent to the War Department containing the same accusations and that it had been sub- mitted to General Davis, Pershing's commanding officer at the time, who labeled the charges false.
The same day, in the Washington Post, Elihu Root, now Secretary of State, and William H.
Taft, the new Secretary of War, both were quoted as saying there was no foundation to the story.
Two captains, named Swobe and Cloman, who had served in Zam- boanga with Pershing came forward to defend him.
Both had known PROMOTION AND SCANDAL 89 him intimately and asserted that Pershing had lived in bachelor offi- cers' quarters on the post, as they did, and that he had not set up any irregular living arrangements with a Filipino.
Captain Swobe also told a Kansas City Star reporter that he recalled the Bondoy sisters, Joaquina among them, and the joking that went on around the can- teen where they dispensed cigars and refreshments to the American soldiers.
A number of their children played around the canteen, and when the sisters were asked who click here fathered them they would jok- ingly reply, "President Roosevelt" or "Governor Taft" or "General Wood," or any other officer who came into their minds.
That, said Captain Swobe, was the baseless inception of the rumor concerning General Pershing.
The only person who refused to comment was Pershing himself.
Pershing, she wrote her father a warmly loyal letter from Tokyo, apparently having read of the charges against her hus- band when they stopped off in Japan en route to the Philippines, and Senator Warren released it for publication.
It was briefly revived in 1912 when reports were circulated that Pershing was to be appointed the superintendent of the United States Military Academy.
The New York World some- what gratuitously recalled the charges against him and pointed out that Pershing "did not demand the usual 'court of honor' to vindicate himself.
He ignored the sensational allegations and his wife stead- fastly maintained her belief in her husband's innocence.
He meticulously clipped all the stories concerning the scan- dal and preserved them in the scrapbooks which are part of the Per- shing Papers.
In 1912, when the matter was rehashed, he engaged James Ross, a former judge of the Court of First Instance of the Philip- pines, to gather affidavits and any other information which please click for source re- fute the accusation, on the possibility that they might be needed.
They weren't, so the independent inquiry was dropped.
That was the only indication he ever gave regarding his own attitude toward the charges.
The man whom he blackjack der bodyguard stream replacing in command of Fort Mc- Kinley, Colonel Henry P.
Kingsbury, had been a captain in the 6th Cavalry when Pershing was a second lieutenant.
Military etiquette re- quired Colonel Kingsbury to call on General Pershing, his senior in rank if not in service.
Before Colonel Kingsbury had a chance to pre- sent himself, however, he article source surprised to receive a telephone call from General Pershing.
The conversation, according to Colonel Kings- bury, was as follows: PERSHING "How are you, Colonel?
You are a general officer.
On the contrary, I'm glad you came to the post.
His second daughter, Anne, was born in March of 1908 in the cool mountain air of Baguio, the hill station where officers' wives went during the hot season.
Later that year Pershing, accompanied by his wife, was sent to Europe to inspect and report on the efficiency of the European armies.
He became mysteriously ill in Paris and was bundled off to Mannheim, one of the spas favored by Edwardians to cure all bodily aches and ailments.
The doctors there recommended that he give up smoking, although, as he later told a New York Times reporter, "his cigar was part of his life.
Breaking the habit was easy enough, he said; "the only hard thing was in making up my mind.
He had contracted sprue, a dysentery-like tropical disease which attacked the digestive tract, caus- ing anemia and other side effects.
Pershing was ordered to return to the United States for treatment and spent six months at the Hot Springs Arkansas Army and Navy Hospital.

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