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If neither dealer nor player has a blackjack, the player then decides how he wants to proceed. In the case of a tie (also known as a β€œpush”), the bet is returned.


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Online Blackjack: Play at the Top Scam-Free Blackjack Casinos UK
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If you choose to use IE 11 we cannot guarantee you will be able to login or use the site.
We advise you switch to the latest version of eitheror.
Play 3 hands of Blackjack against the house.
The chip will rise indicating it is selected for betting.
Click on the table betting area highlighted circle to place a bet at the value of the chip selected.
If desired, each additional click will add one unit of the chip value selected to the bet.
It is possible to mix chip values on the same bet.
The total value will be displayed alongside the chip s on the table.
Use the Clear button to remove all chips click the table.
When you are happy with your bets, click Deal.
The first of the Dealer's cards is placed face down the 'hole' cardthe second is placed face up the 'upcard'showing its value.
If the Dealer's upcard is an Ace, you have the option of taking Insurance more information under 'Special Plays' section.
Both your cards are placed face up.
If your hand value is 21, the game will automatically stand and play will proceed to the Dealer.
If you do not have 21, you can either take more blackjack return to player 'hit' or remain at your current total a 'stand'.
Should you decide to continue to take more cards, click the HIT button until you have either gone over 21 'bust' or you wish to retain your card total and call a STAND.
Depending upon your card click at this page, you may also be offered options to DOUBLE or SPLIT your hand.
These options and others are discussed in more detail in the 'Special Plays' section.
Whether the Dealer can now draw any more cards depends on the total of its hand.
If the Dealer has fewer than 17, it must draw another card.
If the Dealer's hand equals 17 or over, it may not draw any more cards.
The Dealer may go 'bust' should the next draw prove higher than 21, otherwise the players' cards and the Dealers' will be compared to determine a winner.
For example if you have Ace and 9 and stand, this has a value of 20 not 10.
The Dealer must follow explicit rules when it has an Ace in its hand.
Blackjack is not paid on a winning hand that has been split.
If one hand Player or Dealer has Blackjack and the other hand has a 21 made up of 3 or more cards, blackjack return to player Blackjack will win.
This rule applies to both the Dealer and the player.
Click NEW GAME to start another game with no bets on the table.
Click the REBET button to bet the same amount as your previous bet AND deal the cards for the next game.
NOTE: This action cannot be undone when selected.
Click the REBET X 2 button to bet double the amount as your previous bet AND deal click cards for the next game.
NOTE: This action cannot be undone when selected.
The player is not permitted to double down after first taking a hit.
It is not paid on split hands.
Special plays will appear as buttons during the course of the game, when you have the option to play them.
Insurance If the Dealer's second card or upcard is an Ace, you are given the option to accept Insurance before the Dealer views the hole card the Dealer's first card, dealt face down.
If you accept Insurance, the Dealer will check 'peek' at its hole card for Blackjack.
Insurance is effectively a side-bet of half the amount of your original bet, paid at 2:1.
This means that if the Dealer has a natural 21 or Blackjack, you blackjack return to player your original bet unless you have Blackjackbut win 2 to 1, thereby limiting your loss.
If you have Blackjack AND the Dealer has an Ace on any of the hands in play, you will be offered "Even Money" for that hand, by the Dealer.
This is the equivalent of buying insurance on this hand.
If you accept Even Money, you will be paid 1:1 on your original wager and the hand will then end.
If you have Blackjack AND the Dealer has an Ace, you will be offered Even Money by the Dealer.
This is the equivalent of buying insurance on this hand.
Since the outcome of buying Insurance on Blackjack is the same no matter the outcome of the Dealer, PlayNow.
Splitting If your first two cards are of identical value, you may split blackjack return to player and place an additional bet equal to card blackjack iphone counting app original bet to play two hands instead of one.
Each of the cards then becomes the start of a new hand.
Splitting is only allowed once, at the start of the game.
No further splitting re-splitting can be carried out.
Note: Ten, Jack, Queen and King have identical value; any combination of these cards may be split in addition to pairs.
If you split a pair of Aces, each Ace is dealt one card and then the hand automatically stands as no further weeds south africa blackjack are permitted on split Aces.
Hands are scored against the Dealer independently after a split.
For example, one hand could bust and the other hand could attain a 20.
You will lose the bust hand and continue to play the 20 against the Dealer.
Player loses total bet all wagersif dealer has blackjack.
After a split, only 1:1 will be paid to winning hands.
Blackjack is only paid on the first 2 cards originally dealt to the hand prior to any splits.
A green indicator shows which hand is being played.
Play will proceed from the Player's right to left.
Double Down This option enables you to double your bet and receive just one more card, forfeiting the opportunity to hit further.
You may choose to double only on the first 2 cards of any hand and only with a total of 9, 10, or 11.
You may not double after taking a hit.
Player loses total bet all wagersif dealer has blackjack.
You may not hit or double down on split Aces.
Double After Split Once you have split your identical value cards into two hands and received a second card for each, you may have the option to double down on those two hands.
Each hand is played out separately and you can choose to double down on one, or both hands.
Doubling down after splitting on two hands follows the same rules as doubling down on a single hand and returns the same odds - double your bet - for each hand you win.
Player loses check this out bet all wagersif dealer has blackjack.
Two Aces You may split Aces.
You will only receive 1 card per Ace.
You will not receive the option to hit further, double, or re-split if you receive another Ace.
see more loses total bet all wagersif dealer has blackjack.
Soft Totals A soft hand is one where your hand contains an Ace and could be counted as one of 2 different values.
For example, an Ace and 9 could equal 10 or 20.
If you choose to stand on Ace and 9 the value will automatically be the highest, meaning the player would stand on 20.
Other Rules No Re-splitting You may only split your hand once, at the start of the game, if your first two cards are identical in value.
No further split re-splitting is allowed.
Game Results After you have finalised your hand, the Dealer will then finalise theirs.
The results of the game are clearly displayed by each https://yournaughtystory.com/blackjack/blackjack-strain-sativa.html and on the top bar.
Play Payout for Winning Hand Blackjack 3:2 Insurance 2:1 Even Money 1:1 Winning hand excluding Blackjack or special plays 1:1 Push a draw Returns the original bet Lose Forfeits your bet Double or Double Down 2:1 on the original bet Double After Split 2:1 on the original bet on each winning split hand Split 1:1 on each winning hand Blackjack uses five full card decks, which are reshuffled after every hand.
Played with a 52-card deck This game has a Return to Player of 99.
NOTE: In case of malfunction, all game plays and payouts will be voided.
Know your odds Our responsible gambling program to help keep gambling a safe, fun source of entertainment.
GameSense reinforces our focus on keeping it fun.
GameSense involves learning how the games work and the odds of winning and losing.
Using your GameSense means balancing the fun part of gambling with the blackjack return to player to stay in control and within your boundaries.
Voluntary Self-Exclusion If gambling no longer feels like a game, the Voluntary Self-Exclusion program can help.

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Der Ultimative Blackjack Guide - Tipps und Tricks, die jeder kennen muss
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Der Ultimative Blackjack Guide - Tipps und Tricks, die jeder kennen muss
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Knowing how to win requires a blackjack strategy, so you can always make the best decision to optimise your winnings.
The house will always have the edge, so following a best practice set of moves as explained below will only reduce the house edge β€” but it will never close the gap completely.
Blackjack Basic Strategy 4-8 Deck Table There are many that all feature different rules.
There are two major differences that you may come across in online blackjack variants that will have an effect on the best move to make: whether the dealer will or.
How to Win at Blackjack When Dealer Stands on Soft 17 This is the far more common set for blackjack as it has a slightly higher house edge, so if blackjack return to player intend on learning how to win at blackjack by committing the best blackjack strategy to memory, this would be the one.
Each strategy is divided into three parts: for hard hands without an acesoft hands with an ace and pairs.
Simply find the type of hand you have and open the correct sheet.
Double Down If you have a 9,10 or 11 total, you may be offered to double down.
Many of the decisions are not surprising β€” they is bovada blackjack rigged reddit the logical choice to make.
The most interesting scenarios are those with pairs.
As you can see, the actions change depending not only on the type of pair you have but also on the card the dealer has.
It could be argued that with a pair of 10s, and a relatively poor dealer card, it would be most beneficial to split, thus providing the possibility to win twice.
However, online blackjack using paypal perfect blackjack strategy would tell you to stand.
This is because split hands will often lead to hands of less than 20 points, and more chance therefore of losing.
Best Blackjack Strategy When Dealer Hits on Soft 17 One of the most common variants on the standard setup is that the dealer must draw another card if they have a soft 17.
This impacts the best action to take for certain combinations.
For this reason, another table is needed which shows the best decision to make where this rule is in place.
As you can see, there are not many differences between this blackjack strategy and its more common cousin.
However, you can certainly track down games with this rule and take advantage of the slightly improved return to player RTP rate that comes with it.
For example, the Microgaming title and the mobile-friendly variants both will see blackjack casino games free slots dealer hit on a soft 17.
It is worth paying attention to these subtle differences when playing so you can squeeze out every last percentage point you can to maximise your winnings.
Playing Common Blackjack Hands I know that it can be tricky to understand some of these charts and tables.
There are a lot of numbers, and the pressure to make a decision can be intense.
Example Scenarios Explained The video shows a few of the trickier scenarios, clearly outlined so you can experience the whole situation.
Simple Tips for Memorising Blackjack Strategy The advantages of using these strategy tables are clear.
If you play online blackjack, you can open the tables and ensure that you make the optimal decision with every hand.
Of course, there are no time limits to take your turn when playing online, so you can take your time, check the charts and make the best choices to increase your chances of winning.
Yet if you play in a land-based casino, it is not as easy.
Many casinos will not allow you to bring such strategy guides to the game with you, so you have to memorise an awful lot of details in order to play optimally.
There are of course some differences between this shorter table and the detailed versions, but they are minimal.
By using this shorter strategy table from memory when playing in a real casino, you may not always make the optimal move.
However, chances are that when you play in a brick and mortar casino, you will be in the company of friends and looking to have some fun.
Therefore, it is not vital to squeeze the few extra hundredths of percent chance of winning from each game.
If your aim is to play blackjack seriously with the maximum chance of winning, then you should opt for online casinos, such as.
This way you can use the detailed tables and take your time to ensure you are making the best decisions.
Advanced Blackjack Strategy Learning the how to win blackjack with a basic strategy is a fantastic starting point and will go a long way to reducing the house edge.
However, there are still a few extra factors that you can account for that will improve your odds by a blackjack return to player amount.
The following strategic moves will only be helpful if you first have fully memorised the best actions to take, as outlined in the.
Composition Dependent This section will expand on the basics by looking more in detail at the cards that have been dealt.
These examples are all only appropriate in the standard rules wherein the dealer stands on a soft 17.
Player 16 Against Dealer 10 The total of 16 can be created in a few blackjack return to player ways: with a ten-value card and a six; or a nine and a seven; or a four, five and seven; or a pair of eights.
If the dealer has a 10, then basic blackjack strategy tells you to hit the first three and split the eights.
This is because the fact that there are three low-value cards in your hand reaching a low total means that there are fewer low-value cards left in the deck than when at the start of the game.
Just these few cards being dealt are enough to change the odds and make it statistically better to stand.
Player 15 Against Dealer 10 The Composition Dependent twist on this combination of hands assumes that the variant you are playing offers the option to.
The blackjack strategy card above would tell you that if you have a 15 against a dealer 10, the best option is to surrender.
However, if your 15 is comprised of an eight and a seven, then the statistically-better option is to hit.
Player 12 Against Dealer 4 A slightly more complicated Composition Dependent hand to note is if you have a total of 12 against a dealer four.
There are five different combinations that can make up a 12, and three different options you will take, depending on the composition.
Nor does the strategy change if you have a nine and three; eight and four; or a five and seven.
If you are dealt a ten-value card and a two, however, you are slightly better off hitting against a dealer four β€” as long as the variant is played using fewer than eight decks.
Having just the one ten-value card in your hand lowers the odds of you read article enough to change the statistically-advantageous play.
Composition Dependent strategy means taking note of the exact cards that are in your hand, and how the makeup of your hand effects the best action to take.
By incorporating the Composition Dependent Strategy into your basic gameplay, you can reduce the house edge by up to 5.
Adapting to More Players The cards held by other players can also impact the decisions you should make in an advanced technique.
As explained in the Composition Dependent strategy, the cards that have been dealt on the table can change the statistically-advantageous action to take because it changes which cards are left in the shoe for the dealer to draw from.
In a land-based casino, other players at your table may feel inclined to criticise you for your decisions, as it ultimately affects the card the dealer draws.
Understanding the full importance of the cards already dealt would require card counting, which is an even more advanced type of blackjack strategy.
Card Counting Following the perfect blackjack strategy as outlined will give you the best chances of winning, but still the house has a small edge.
By using the card blackjack return to player method, you can overcome this house edge and increase your profits further.
This method is not a completely new technique; it is in fact an extension of the optimal moves using the strategy tables.
You can learn more about in my dedicated article.
Hollywood movies like portray the protagonist being discovered to be card counting and immediately dragged into a back room for a beating.
However, this far from the actual truth.
Card counting and all other blackjack strategies described on this page are completely legal.
The worst-case scenario may see you excused or banned from a casino should your winnings become higher than the operator would like.
You do not have to worry about using these strategic moves when playing blackjack.
Understanding the rules of the games and the statistically-best moves to make is perfectly legal.
Playing the perfect blackjack strategy still does not guarantee that you will win every hand, it only reduces the house edge and removes losses due to player error.
Betting Systems The other type of strategies commonly used in casinos are for how to make your wagers.
Betting strategies in blackjack casino blackjack hand generally be considered as something entirely separate from your playing strategy.
The only times when your bets and your gameplay overlap is if you need to place more money on the table, for example when doubling or splitting.
For these actions, you will only need to make sure the table limits will allow you to click here such wagers on the table.
The following betting strategies have nothing to do with understanding how to win at blackjack.
Martingale The Martingale is one of the most popular and well-known betting strategies.
It is most commonly used on even-money bets in roulette but can also be applied to blackjack.
This approach means doubling your bet when you lose a game.
So, if you bet Β£5 and lose, your next bet will be Β£10.
You continue to double your bet with each loss until you win a game.
At which point, you would return to your original bet amount of Β£5.
By using this system, when you win a game, all your losses are won back, plus a small profit.
There are certain limitations on using this blackjack return to player for blackjack, just as there are for roulette.
You can only double your bet so many times before you reach the maximum betting limit.
This would mean betting very big sums of money using this system.
Yet overall, it is quite an easy strategy to apply, and you could give it a try to see if it works for you.
It involves choosing a base betting amount, then increasing the bet with each loss by that base amount and decreasing the bet with each win by the same sum.
Another negative progression system, the Labouchere blackjack betting strategy involves changing on wins and losses based on a cyclical system.
It begins with identifying a pre-determined profit potential, and mathematically increasing and decreasing bets until that profit is achieved, then the cycle ends.
Fibonacci Based on the mathematical sequence of the same name, the Fibonacci system is a negative progression betting system.
With each losing bet, you should increase your original sum multiplied by the next number in the Fibonacci sequence.
A winning bet would be followed by moving down two numbers in the sequence.
The 1-3-2-6 system is a progressive betting strategy that has been compared to the Paroli technique.
It involves increasing bets on winning hands in a 1-3-2-6 pattern, where you multiply your base bet by the appropriate number in the pattern when you win.
The Parlay blackjack betting system is a progressive system that involves wagering the takings from winning bets.
The benefit is that here winning streak will grow profits faster than in a negative system, but the downside is that it has no system to recoup losses.
The Paroli technique is another progressive betting strategy.
It requires the player to double their bet with each win, until there have been three wins in a row.
If there is a loss, the wager is reduced back to the original bet.
Hand Interaction This betting technique is a bit of a side-step from the standard way of wagering on blackjack and is really only possible in a land-based casino, not in an online game.
This is because it is a strategy that involves interacting with other players at the same table.
The basic premise is twofold.
First, it revolves around watching other players at a table and piggybacking from their good hands.
For example, if the dealer is showing a 10-value card and a player is dealt a hand equalling 10.
The correct strategic move for the player is to double down, as seen in the.
By having another player front some cash on a losing hand, you can relieve yourself of some financial liability.
Insurance and side bets Side bets such as insurance should also not have any effect on playing the perfect blackjack strategy as they do not interfere with the main hand.
However, one very credible tip is to avoid making insurance and side bets.
This is because the expected payout for these types of bets is significantly lower than the normal game.
The main game of blackjack has an expected return to player RTP rate of around 99%, side bets tend to vary between just 95 β€” 97%.
Therefore, if you are looking for the optimal betting strategy to maximise your profits, side bets and insurance should always be ignored.
They are not favourable for the player, and although you may win in some cases, in the long run, you will lose your money faster.
To learn more about side bets, have a read of my.
System Criticisms Yes, there is a science to playing the perfect blackjack strategy, which will help the player to close the house edge between winning and losing as much as possible.
However, while many betting systems offer some mathematical potential on the surface, the reality is that they have no effect on the luck that is still required to win the game.
The problem that many players will face when attempting to use betting systems is the unfortunate reality that a run of bad luck could be catastrophic.
Take the : Doubling congratulate, holland casino amsterdam blackjack think bet rules 888 blackjack every loss will soon see you rack up some big losses.
Starting with a Β£5 bet will add up to you losing Β£1,275 in only eight hands, should you hit a losing streak.
Using any betting system will not change the house edge on the game itself.
They are merely offered as a method of controlling your losses and profits based on the types of wagers that you make.
However, they will not stop you from losing money in a streak of bad luck.
For example, mackie onyx blackjack interface is no point trying to use the rules for when the dealer hits on a soft 17 when the game you play will see the dealer stand on a soft 17.
Next, is the return to player RTP rates.
While blackjack, as a standard, has one of the best RTP percentages of all casino games, every variant will have a slightly different percentage based on how they are designed by the software developer, and which point the rules are put in place.
The difference may only be between 99.
To give you a bit of a helping hand, I have done the research already and found the three best operators for playing blackjack, as you can see in the table below.
Irregular gameplay may invalidate your bonus.
Game contributions vary, max stake applies.
These three online casinos all have a fantastic selection of blackjack variants for you to play, check this out boasting high average RTP rates.
They also offer their own unique welcome bonuses, each with fair wagering conditions β€” which you can learn more about on my.
Common Mis-plays and Misunderstandings There are a few false facts floating around about some aspects of the game.
This is understandable, considering the and how many different rules and variations have been introduced over the years.
Unfortunately, many of these are taken as truths, and can have a negative effect on your gameplay strategy, so I have taken this opportunity to right a few wrongs and ensure you have the best blackjack strategy.
You are not trying to reach 21, you are trying to have a better hand than that of the dealer, and 21 is the best possible total.
However, 20 is a very strong total that will win the hand 78% of the time.
However, the cards in the shoe are dealt without any impact from previous hands.
However, only 16 cards out of 52 count as a 10, while the remaining 36 are something else.
In a lucky situation, they can be used to minimise losses, however a run of bad hands could result in a catastrophic loss.
Knowing the many rules of blackjack also means knowing that some sayings that sound like rules, actually are just bad advice.
Blackjack Strategy Calculator Our Blackjack Basic Strategy Calculator allows you to select the rules for your blackjack game and get a free custom-made blackjack strategy chart.
As the strategy varies slightly based on these variables, you can use this calculator every time you try a new variant, or print out a version that fits your favourites.
The blackjack basic strategy chart will help you make the statistically best decisions on blackjack return to player to: Stand, Hit, Double Down, Surrender or Split when playing blackjack.
You should be aware that the casino still has the edge in blackjack, even if you use this blackjack strategy chart.
However, by playing according to the blackjack chart you minimize the casinos edge β€” almost to the break even point; thereby maximizing your chances of winning at blackjack.
You can see how big the casinos edge is in the top right corner of your custom made blackjack strategy chart β€” the casinos edge naturally varies depending on the blackjack rules.
Learn when to stay, double, hit and split with our interactive blackjack trainer.
Simply play Blackjack Better like you would an ordinary game.
Downloadable Blackjack Resources There have been a few PDF sheets outlining the different strategies you can play in blackjack throughout this page.
To make things as simple as possible for you to access, I have collected them all into this table for you.
Trying to wrap your head around the best times to hit, stand, double or split your cards can take a bit of getting used to.
There is an enormous amount of combinations that could be in play between your hand and that of a dealer.
What you need is a resource to help.
Simply cross-reference the two hands in play to see the best action to take for maximum chances of winning.
The following tables are for blackjack games played with four or more decks, the mathematics of which is well known and has been in existence for many years.
This glossary should describe them all to you, so that you can ensure you have a holistic understanding of the game.
Blackjack in the Media Further than the entertainment value of the game itself, blackjack is also featured frequently throughout mainstream media channels.
This is because, unlike many other casino games like slots or roulette, this is a game of skill that requires mathematical knowledge or a photographic memory to understand the perfect blackjack strategy.
Books Explaining Blackjack Strategy As there is a difficult β€” though possible β€” way to improve your skills at the game, there are a plethora of books that have been written about how to win at blackjack.
Many mathematicians have tried their hand at explaining the best strategic manoeuvres through the textbook-style format, such as Basic Blackjack by Stanford Wong, which covers much of the and some of the varieties found in different casinos across the globe.
More technical titles include Million Dollar Blackjack by Ken Uston, who invented some very advanced card counting strategies such as the Uston Advanced Point Count.
Movies About Blackjack Strategy The glitz and glamour of the casino industry has given Hollywood a lot of inspiration for blockbuster movies over the years, with blackjack often the focus.
Latest Blackjack News The online casino industry is an ever-changing sector, with ongoing advances in technology.
There are new games released all the time, huge payouts from various operators, and other important breaking information that you can see in the table below.
What is the basic strategy in blackjack?
Basic blackjack strategy is very blackjack return to player and involves only understanding whether the best action is to hit, stand, split, or double.
I have provided in the article above to help you understand when to do so.
How do you count cards?
Counting cards usually involves assigning a value of -1, 1, or +1 to clusters of cards based on their values.
This helps the player keep track of which cards have already been played at a table, and therefore the statistic possibility of which cards remain.
You can learn more on how to use this technique.
What does it mean to split in blackjack?
When you are dealt two cards with the same value, you are offered the option to 'split', which will turn one hand into two, each with one of the cards from the original hand.
You will need to place another equal wager on the table and will now effectively be in control of two hands.
You can learn more about here.
What is the difference between hard and soft?
A hard hand means that you do not have an Ace in your hand, while a soft hand will include an Ace.
You can learn more about what this means in the.
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blackjack return to player

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Der Ultimative Blackjack Guide - Tipps und Tricks, die jeder kennen muss
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The game is played with one or more decks of 52 cards no Joker cards are included.
Initially each player will receive 2 cards and the dealer with receive one face up card a second face down card though depending on the version, this card may not be drawn until after the players have completed their actions, this is typical of European games.
Where the first two cards dealt to either the player or the dealer is an Ace and any of the ten valued cards, this is referred to as Blackjack.
Where the dealer holds a Blackjack they automatically beat all player hands other than a player Blackjack which results in a push returning of the initial wager.
Where the player has Blackjack and the dealer does not the player automatically wins the hand and will receive a payout of 3 to 2.
Some casinos have started to reduce this payout from 3 to 2 to 6 to 5.
Where the dealer is dealt an Ace or a ten value card as their face up card when playing has foxwoods blackjack minimum remarkable game where the second card is dealt face down before the players play, the dealer will normally check the down card prior to play of the round to see if they have the Ace or ten valued card that would make their hand a Blackjack.
Where the dealer has Blackjack they will turn over their down card and the round will be concluded immediately, otherwise the round will play out as normal.
The player can continue to Hit until they are happy with their hand or the reach a total exceeding 21.
Stand: When the player is happy with their hand they can choose to stand, taking no more cards and waiting for the dealer to play to decide the outcome of the blackjack big system online betting />When the player takes this action they place an additional bet equal to their initial bet and will receive only one to official blackjack rules card.
Doubling can only occur when the player has only received their initial two cards, once any Hit cards have been taken the option to double no longer exists.
Some variations on the rules will restrict the player to only being able to Double on certain hand totals.
Split: If the player is dealt two cards of matching rank the player can choose to split the hand.
The dealer will then deal out a second card to each hand and the player plays the hands independently.
Where Aces are split, normally the player will only be allowed to receive one card to each Ace they cannot proceed to Hit, Double or Split and if a ten value card is dealt to split Aces the hand is considered a value of 21 but not Blackjack.
Surrender: After the player has received their initial two cards some Blackjack games will allow the player to Surrender their hand.
This rule is not offered on all Blackjack games and is only available at the very beginning of the hand before any other actions have been taken.
This means that the player gives up the hand and will receive half of their wager returned to them.
There are two variations of the Surrender rule; Early and Late.
Where the dealer has an Ace or a ten value card face up, Early Surrender is offered before the dealer checks for Blackjack.
Late Surrender is offered after the dealer checks for Blackjack, only if the dealer does not have Blackjack.
Early Surrender is a very favourable rule for the player.
Insurance: Where the dealer shows an Ace as their face up card the players will be offered the option to take the Insurance bet before the dealer checks for Blackjack.
Where the player chooses to take Insurance, they place an additional wager of half their initial bet.
When the dealer checks for Blackjack, if the dealer does not have Blackjack the Insurance bet loses and the hand is played out as normal.
If the dealer does have Blackjack the initial bet loses and all hands are terminated, but the Insurance bet is paid out at 2 to 1.
Mathematically taking Even Money is exactly the same as taking Insurance.
Without additional information for example information derived from Card Counting Insurance is always a bad bet for the player, carrying a substantially higher house edge than the main game.
Once all players have completed their hands by continue reading Busting or choosing to Stand, the dealer will play their hands.
Unlike the player the dealer does not have a choice regarding how to play their hand.
They blackjack return to player reveal the second face down card then proceed to Hit until they have a total of 17 or more.
Certain variations of the game will require the dealer to Hit Soft 17.
Unlike Blackjack Quinze was a player backed game the person functioning as the dealer paid all wins with the house getting a cut of winnings, much like modern day poker.
Each player and the dealer would receive one card, the players would act before the dealer and could choose to draw additional cards until they were happy with their hand, had a total of fifteen or exceeded fifteen.
The dealer would follow the same process after the players though did not have to conform to specific rules and could to hit or stand as they chose.
Unlike Blackjack, players who exceeded fifteen did not automatically lose their bet and if the dealer also exceeded fifteen would have their bets returned to them.
While Quinze allowed the dealer a flexibility of action that is not present in modern day Blackjack again creating a psychological aspect to the game that again compares well with modern day poker, the structure of the game shows clear similarities to that of Blackjack.
A later game that Snyder puts forward as another precursor of Blackjack is Sette e Mezzo meaning Seven and a Half which was popular in Italy in the seventeenth century.
This game was very similar to Quinze except it was played with a 40 card deck missing the all the 8s, 9s and 10s pip cards had been removed.
The aim of the click at this page was to get a total closer to 7 Β½ than the dealer without going over.
All cards counted their face value barring face cards that were valued at Β½ and the King of Diamonds that was considered Wild and as such could count as any value.
If the player went over 7 Β½ their hand was bust and like modern Blackjack they automatically lost their bet, but like Quinze Seete eMezzo was banked by the person dealing rather than source casino, the dealer did not have to follow a specific set of rules and the players were blackjack return to player dealt one initial card.
Quinze and Sette e Mezzo appear to have formed the structural bases upon which the popular game of Vingt- et-Un Twenty and One was later derived and while Vingt-et-Un was originally a player banked game, it developed into a casino banked game and shared many of the same rules as modern day Blackjack.
Despite the fact that these payments would be very unusual today the name Blackjack replaced Twenty One for most Twenty One style games.
Other Significant factors in the development of the game Three other developments have been significant to the game of Blackjack; the development of Basic Strategy, the discovery of Card Counting and the introduction of reduced payouts for Blackjack.
What is so impressive about the work of Baldwin, Cantey, Maisel and McDermott is that they completed their analysis simply by playing the game, recording the results and crunching the numbers on an old calculator.
Today this sort of analysis would be far less demanding, with simulations completed at the touch of a button, but the hard work of the Horsemen changed the game of Blackjack forever.
It should be noted that each rule variation in the game of Blackjack results in a different Basic Strategy, but this will be addressed below in the Basic Strategy section of this article.
Card Counting In 1962 Edward O Thorp, a mathematics professor who has worked at some of the most respected universities in the United States, read the work of Baldwin, Cantey, Maisel and McDermott on Basic Strategy in Blackjack and concluded that each card in the deck must have an inherent value authoritative split 10 blackjack does the player, either positive or negative, and that if the cards that had been played already could be accounted for the player would know whether the cards still to be dealt were favourable to the player or the dealer.
After extensive research Thorp concluded that small cards benefited the dealer and high cards ten pips and face cards benefited the player.
So an excess of high cards left to come out would create a situation where the player would have the advantage over the casino.
While over the average of all hands the casino would still have an advantage, if the player bet low when the odds favoured the house and high when the odds favoured themselves that advantage could not only be nullified but turned towards the player.
The surge in popularity was directly related to players realising that the game of Blackjack could be beaten.
The reality however was that the vast majority of players failed to learn the skills necessary to beat the game so the publication of a winning system actually resulted in an increase in profits for the casinos.
The Ten Count was an awkward system to implement accurately, requiring the player to keep note of how many high cards came out, how many low cards came out and then calculate the ratio of remaining high to low cards in their head.
While awkward this was still achievable for a patient practitioner at a single deck game.
These rule changes had the opposite of the desired effect β€” skilled players could still beat the games despite the poorer rules and the unskilled players deserted the casinos offering the poorer rules.
Even the additional edge that the rule provided the house was not edge blackjack house what is to compensate for the substantial loss of custom resulting from the rule changes.
Within two weeks of the new rules being implemented, the financial consequences for the casinos had been so substantial that the rules were returned to their former standards with one slight exception, the casinos started to increase the number of decks used to play the game figuring that it would be more difficult to keep track of more cards.
The HiLo count assigned a point value to each card which the player would then add or subtract for each card seen, reducing the mental workload for the player substantially by allowing the use of the system with only one memorised number.
The HiLo count made the addition of multiple decks a relatively minor inconvenience to the Card Counter.
This continue reading done in such a way that many players did not realise that they were being offered a weaker game.
The casinos dropped the payout for a player receiving a Blackjack from 3:2 to 6:5.
With this rule the casinos finally found a way to substantially increase their edge over the playing public without discouraging players.
As the player will receive a Blackjack approximately every 21 hands, even at a slowly dealt game the cost of this reduction can add up very quickly.
This rule is now being added by several smaller software providers β€” generally on single deck games β€” to online casinos.
These games are by no means prolific, but their appearance is no good thing for players.
The correct response to seeing a Blackjack table that only pays 6:5 is to walk away from the table or close the game!
Basic Strategy Basic Strategy is the mathematically optimal way to play any possible hand in the game of Blackjack.
Many rule variations in the game can impact the Basic Strategy that the player should apply to that game.
As such you should always check the specific rules of the game you are intending to play and generate the correct table for that game.
The corresponding cell in the table defines the action that the player should take.
As a rough guide here are a list of rule variations and the approximate effect based on the rule set displayed above they will have on the House Edge of a Blackjack game; Rule Variations Rule Difference in House Edge 1 Deck +0.
Click the links below to view the Basic Strategy tables for individual games.
Club World casino group uses 12.
Club World casino group uses 12.
Given the HE given in the help file 8 decks seems likely Multi-Hand Blackjack 0.
The House Edge figure is only accurate if the game is fair.
The House Edge figure is only accurate if the game is fair.
Standard, Progressive Multi-Split European Single Deck Single Deck with CD Vegas Video: 4 Decks Video: 8 Decks Pontoon Atlantic City Classic European, Streak, Pairs Spanish Vegas DT, Bonus Vegas Single Deck Vegas Strip Pontoon 4 Decks 6 Decks 8 Decks Standard European, 6D European, 8D Pontoon, 2D Standard Pontoon, 8D Bodog 6D with Sur.
Standard Crypto, Playtech Std.
MG Vegas Strip Net Ent, 888.
If you have not then the calculator will NOT return accurate results.
Winning Strategies for Blackjack While there are some legitimate playing strategies that can give the player the edge while playing the game of Blackjack, the vast majority of the systems out there that purport to do this are completely bogus and devoid of any worth.
Below are notes on some of the systems that can gain the player a mathematical advantage.
Offline Please be aware that the following strategies are only valid where the game being played is not shuffled after every hand, or depend on a weak dealer providing the players more information than they should have.
As such they cannot gain an advantage where the player is using Random Number Generator RNG games β€” the computerized versions of Blackjack found at online casinos.
There are live dealer games available online where some of the techniques described below may be applicable, but in my opinion the game conditions available online are not conducive to gaining any sustainable level of advantage.
The moment that a computer is used to keep track of the cards or perform calculations, this becomes a violation of gaming law.
We strongly discourage anyone from engaging in any form of illegal activity.
Card Counting The fundamental premise behind Card Counting is that high cards benefit the player while low cards benefit the dealer.
There are several reasons for this; β€” Where a Blackjack is dealt, which consists of two high cards, if the player receives the Blackjack they win 1.
Therefore, if the player and the dealer alternated in receiving Blackjacks, the player would win an additional half bet for every 2 hands played.
This is also the reason that low link benefit the dealer more than the players.
There are other reasons high value cards benefit the player, but the above are the strongest factors.
As such if the player knows that there are more high cards than low cards left to be https://yournaughtystory.com/blackjack/blackjack-casino-promotions.html the deck β€” depending on the rules and the number of extra high cards β€” the player can have the advantage over the house.
The most basic form of Card Counting is the HiLo system.
The HiLo count assigns a value to the cards as follows; 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 +1 7, 8, blackjack return to player 0 10, Jack, Queen, King and Ace -1 The player starts their count at 0 and as each card is played out adjusts the total according to the values displayed above.
This is referred to as the Running Count.
The higher the count the strong the advantage the player has.
Having more than one deck in play does not make Card Counting substantially more difficult but it does mean that adjustments have to be made to the count.
For obvious reasons having a Running Count of +5 is substantially more significant if there is only one deck remaining to be played than if there are 6 decks still to play.
For this reason, to gain an accurate assessment of the value of the cards remaining to be played to the player the Running Count needs to be divided by the number of decks remaining to be played.
This figure is referred to as the True Count.
For example; If the Running Count is +12 and there are 3 decks remaining, you would divide 12 by 3 which gives us a True Count of +4 meaning there are 4 extra high cards for every deck remaining to be played.
As an approximation each point increase in the True Count shifts the House Edge 0.
I stress that this is not a precise figure and as the player who plays perfect Basic Strategy is generally starting with a disadvantage of around 0.
As such the casino will normally have the edge over the player at any True Count less than 2.
On average β€” and depending on the rules number of decks in play, number of decks dealt out before the shuffle and bet spread difference between the highest and lowest bet β€” Card Counting can provide the player of an edge between 0.
The above is a very simplified overview of Card Counting.
To successfully gain an advantage over the casino using Card Counting strategies requires a lot of practice and research and much of the detail and information required to win is absent from this discussion, including the effect of different game rules, changes to Basic Strategy where the composition of the remaining deck has changed, depth of shuffle point penetration blackjack return to player risk and bankroll considerations.
Where time allows I may cover this topic in more depth at a later date.
In general the player will play through one complete deal of the pack, knowing the shuffle that will be performed in advance, and attempt to locate either a dense packet of high cards, a dense packet of low cards or a specific favourable card usually an Ace to visually follow through the shuffle.
Where a packet of high cards is followed the player will attempt to position them in a favourable place in the following shoe by using the cut card β€” often at the very start of the shoe, allowing them to draw a sharp distinction between their play and that of a Card Counter, who will normally place their large bets toward the end of the shoe β€” and will raise their bets substantially to take advantage of the higher than normal density of player favourable cards.
Where a packet of low cards is followed the player will attempt to use the cut card to remove these dealer favourable cards from play and adjust their playing and betting strategy for the subsequent shoe accordingly.
Where read article Ace is followed through the shuffle β€” normally using cards that were directly adjacent to it in the previous shoe to indicate when the Ace is likely to appear β€” the player will attempt to steer this card to their hand providing that hand with a substantially improved chance of being dealt a Blackjack.
Shuffle Tracking can provide the player with a substantially larger advantage than those achievable with Card Counting β€” often double or more β€” but is vastly more difficult to perform successfully and far more costly where mistakes are made.
As such only the most skilled players will ever make money employing Shuffle Tracking techniques.
The moment that a computer is used to keep track of the cards or perform calculations, this becomes a violation of gaming law.
We strongly discourage anyone from engaging in any form of illegal activity.
Hole Carding Hole Carding is the practice of locating a dealer blackjack return to player is insufficiently protecting their down card hole card enough so that a vigilant player can gain information regarding what the card is.
The player then uses this information to adjust their strategy to account for the additional information.
Depending on the quality and frequency of the Hole Card information available to the player it is possible to gain an advantage of up to 13% with perfect information on every hand and the correct playing strategy.
The easiest card to gain information about is the bottom card on the pack prior to the player cutting the deck after the shuffle, though this is far from the only way to gain this type of information and sloppy dealers and defective equipment can provide just as strong opportunities.
Regarding the legality of Hole Card play and Card Steering β€” These strategies are only legal within the US and UK if the player can gain the required information from a natural position and without use of devices at the table they are playing at.
Online There are several methods of legitimately gaining an advantage over the online Blackjack games.
By and large these involve the use read more promotions, bonuses and comp point systems and the games by themselves β€” assuming the game is functioning in a correct fashion β€” will not provide any additional information about the cards and shuffle after every hand.
For more information on beating online casinos see BeatingBonuses.
Blackjack Hall of Fame The Blackjack Hall of Fame was originally set up in 2002 to recognise the most important contributions to the game of the various players and authors who specialised in finding ways for players to win.
The first group of inductees initiated were done so through a combination of a public ballot which was available online and voting by the professional players that attended the Blackjack Ball in January of 2003.
The Blackjack Ball is a private invitation only event that is only open to professional Advantage Players held in January each year in a secret location in Las Vegas and hosted by Max Rubin.
To receive an invitation and current invitee needs to suggest and vouch for you.
After the first year, public voting for inductions into the Hall of Fame was restricted and both the nominations and the ultimate admissions were decided by attendees of the Blackjack Ball.
This change occurred because the organisers of the Hall of Fame felt that the best people to recognise the contributions that really made a difference to the game of Blackjack were the players who spent their lives putting the theories into practice.
Hall of Fame Members Edward O.
Thorp Inducted 2002 Widely considered by Card Counters and the general public to be the Father think blackjack strategy betfair seems Card Counting, Thorp was the first to publish a gambling system that could successfully beat any casino game.
This results in players abandoning the effected casinos to such a degree that within 2 weeks of the rule change, the new rules were abandoned.
At the time that Thorp and Shannon were using their computers at the table there were no laws prohibiting this activity, but this has since been illegalised.
Outside of gambling Throp has been a professor at UC Irvine, MIT and New Mexico State University.
Gambling books authored by Edward O.
Thorp; Beat the Dealer: A Winning Strategy for the Game of Twenty-One, ISBN 0-394-70310-3 The Mathematics of Gambling, Please click for source 0-89746-019-7 Beat the Market: A Scientific Stock Market System, ISBN 0-394-42439-5 Al Francesco Inducted 2002 Al Francesco β€” not his real name β€” is the man who is known to have trained Ken Uston, was the inventor of team play at Blackjack.
One of the primary ways that casinos pick off Card Counters is by watching their bet spread β€” a Card Counter has to bet substantially higher when they shoe favours them than when the remaining cards favour the dealer.
Francesco concluded that to successfully make money counting cards the player needed to disguise the change in their bet size.
To this end he started training groups of card counters.
Most of the counters β€” known as Spotters β€” would simply move round the casino playing small bets at different tables.
When a good count occurred the spotter would give a signal to the Big Player who would then come over to the table and place big bets until such time as all the extra high cards had come out of the shuffle point was reached.
None-the-less the Big Player strategy is still in use today and has been applied by almost all of the most successful Blackjack teams to have operated since.
This book revolutionised the way that Card Counters approached play, offering them a new way to disguise what they were doing.
This technique is still in used today and β€” despite being well known by casinos as well as players β€” can be very effective.
This technique was far more powerful than Card Counting and again changed the way many professional players approached the game.
In 1979, after being barred from a casino in New Jersey for counting cards, Uston took Resorts International to the New Jersey Supreme Court claiming that the casino had discriminated against him.
Ultimately the Supreme Court ruled for Uston and since that time the casinos in New Jersey have been unable to bar skilled player.
Gambling books authored by Ken Uston; The Big Player, 1977 ISBN 0-03-016921-6 Ken Uston on Blackjack ISBN 0-942637-56-9 Arnold Snyder Inducted 2002 Arnold Snyder is one of the most prolific Blackjack authors of all time.
One of the biggest problems for any Card Counter is playing through hands where they do not have an edge.
Wonging is the practice of standing away from the table, keeping https://yournaughtystory.com/blackjack/wizard-of-odds-blackjack-rules.html of the cards as they are played, and only entering the game if the cards remaining to be played favour the player and leaving the table if the cards become favourable to the house again.
Proficient players will enter good games and abandon tracking games mid-shoe if the count becomes too negative, preferring to take their chances with a freshly shuffled shoe.
This rule was introduced as a direct consequence of Wonging and the Big Player team strategies created by Al Francesco and popularised by Ken Uston.
Gambling books authored by Stanford Wong; Professional Blackjack 1975 Professional Video Poker Wong on Dice 2006.
Pi Yee Press ISBN 0-935926-26-7 Blackjack Secrets Basic Blackjack 1992.
Griffin was the first click estimate the House Advantage over the average Blackjack player and his work in deriving the Betting Correlation and Playing Efficiency of counting systems made for easy comparisons between different counts.
Where other players that have run successful teams have become famous after their teams ended, the Hyland team has been playing successfully for 35 years, which given the egos involved in professional play is unprecedented.
The Hyland team have successfully employed every well-known Advantage Play strategy and have won through in a Canadian court case where three Ontarian casinos attempted to present Ace Sequencing and team play as criminal activity, a position that the court did not accept.
Comp City provide insider knowledge on how various casino reward programs works and what players could do β€” even those not already engaged in Advantage Play β€” to maximise the amount they got out of their comps while minimising the amount the spent at the tables.
Up until the use of computer devices was illegalised in the mid-1980s Keith spent his life coming up with more and more inventive computers that could be concealed on a person and used to beat the game of Blackjack.
His machines were the reason the laws were changed.
The authors and players have a lot to thank Braun for β€” without his programming skills much that we now know would still be a mystery.
Lawrence Revere Inducted 2005 Lawrence Revere was both a serious player and β€” at times β€” a casino employee.
His count systems are still on sale today through members of his family, but by and large there are preferable alternatives 30 years on.
James Grosjean Inducted 2006 By those in the know James Grosjean is widely considered to be the best player ever to have attacked the game.
Grosjean is that rare combination of theoretical genius and personality capable of blending in naturally within a casino environment.
His published works are considered amongst the most valuable gambling information in print today and was sold only to individuals that could provide a reference from a professional player.
This lawsuit ultimately resulted in Griffin Investigations filing for Bankruptcy.
Chang has been a professional player for many years and was one of the managers and primary driving forces behind the most successful years of the MIT Blackjack team.
The book was not particularly fastidious in holding to the blackjack return to player of the story and the resultant film would be difficult to associate with the book without the explicit statement that it was based on Bringing Down the House, but nevertheless the character on Mickey Rosa was a fragmented representation of some of the experiences of John Chang.
Their contribution laid the groundwork for every development to have occurred since then.
For more information see the History section of this article.
Purpose is very highly respected by his peers and considered to be one of the best players in the world, though like Munchkin chooses not to reveal the specific contributions that lead his peers to induct him into the Hall of Fame.
Purpose is also a well-known singer songwriter who has toured extensively across the UK.
Zeljko Ranogajec Inducted 2011 As with some of the other players in the Hall of Fame, Ranogajec is a private individual primarily due to his current involvement with Advantage Play.
As such much of the detail about his achievements are drawn from unclear sources.
Ranogajec began his playing career at the game of Blackjack where he allegedly turned a few hundred dollars into millions, playing prolifically in Australia.
Ian Andersen Inducted 2012 Andersen is a long term successful high stakes Blackjack player.
Gambling books authored by Ian Andersen; Turning the Tables in Las Vegas Burning the Tables in Las Vegas Bob Nersesian Read article 2013 Bob Nersesian is a lawyer specialising in gambling law.
In each these cases Nersesian was successful in the representation of his clients.
blackjack online martingale system book is an invaluable resource for any serious player.
Gambling books authored by Bob Nersesian; Beat the Player Game Variants To improve your user experience, we use cookies.
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Blackjack playing strategies and beliefs: A view from the field Bennis Journal of Gambling Issues Will Bennis University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, U.
Chicago, IL 60637 U.
In February 2004, he will begin a postdoctoral fellowship at the Center for Adaptive Behavior and Cognition at the Max Planck Institute for Human Development in Berlin.
His research concerns how belief systems and the sociocultural environment influence decision-making processes and conceptions of rationality.
His particular focus is on casino gamblers' strategies for and beliefs about winning.
Abstract A great deal of research on the psychology of gambling has been conducted that has looked at non-experienced gamblers in laboratory or classroom settings.
Yet there has been comparatively little research examining the practices and beliefs of actual gamblers within their natural gambling context.
The current research contributes to the naturalistic study of casino gamblers.
It reports the results of 10 weeks of ethnographic participant observation conducted in 1999 in two Indiana riverboat casinos located about Β½ hour from Chicago.
The research examines blackjack players' strategies for and beliefs about winning as explained and understood by the gamblers themselves.
It uses blackjack's basic strategy and card counting as organizing principles around which to discuss and assess these strategies and beliefs.
Introduction Gambling is a large and growing industry in the United States and around the world .
In Europe between 1986 and 1996, legalized casinos expanded from 20 to 32 countries.
In 2002, Americans spent more on legal gambling than on movies, theme parks, spectator sports and video games combined A common explanation for the widespread choice to gamble, as well as the continuation of gambling behavior to the point where it becomes a problem, is that gamblers have biased or irrational cognitions, both about their chances of winning and about how best to play the games once the choice to gamble has been made ; ; ; ; ; ; .
At the same time, a number of researchers have suggested that too much of this research has been conducted in laboratory contexts using non-gamblers .
Psychological research examining how gambling strategies and beliefs about winning are influenced by the structure and dynamics of the gambling environment β€” and, in particular, the sociocultural environment β€” is exceedingly rare ; .
Ethnographic work exploring casino gamblers' subjective understandings and rationales for their beliefs is nearly as difficult to come by for some exceptions to this see ; ; ; .
The current study takes a step toward addressing this paucity of real-world research.
It involves field observations from 10 weeks of ethnographic participant-observation conducted in the spring of 1999 on two Indiana riverboat casinos located about Β½ hour from Chicago.
The focus will be on the practices and beliefs surrounding casino blackjack play: what common strategies do blackjack players use when playing the game and how are these strategies understood by the players themselves?
Most of the fieldwork was conducted either on a casino shuttle carrying passengers to and from downtown Chicago hotels or at blackjack tables in the two casinos.
A few additional conversations took place in other venues as well β€” at the casino buffet, waiting in line to board the ship, and, in one case, during an interview with a floor supervisor.
Why ethnographic participant-observation research?
Ethnographic participant-observation can be distinguished from purely observational methods in that the researcher attempts to live within the community being studied and to participate in their lifestyle and practices as opposed to standing outside the community.
Where a non-participant-observer often approaches subjects with pre-existing categories or concepts to be measured, the participant-observer tends to seek out the categories and concepts widely shared by members of the group being studied.
My role as participant, then, was as a fellow gambler, who traveled to the casinos; risked, won, and lost money; and engaged with the other gamblers as one of them.
For a detailed description of participant-observation as a research methodology see.
There are three main strengths that I believe make ethnographic participant-observation ideal for studying gambling behavior visit web page context.
Second, participant observation https://yournaughtystory.com/blackjack/pkr-live-blackjack.html the researcher a richness of content that is not available with methods involving pre-arranged questions and pre-determined causal variables.
Participant observation allows the researcher to be surprised with relevant information that may have been inadvertently screened out by other research methods.
Third, and most importantly, participant observation allows the researcher richer access to the practices, values, beliefs and experiences of the people being studied compared with other methods.
It allows the researcher to share the subjective experiences of members of the community in this case, the subjective experience of gambling.
It also opens the researcher up to both implicit and explicit values and beliefs that will often not be visible to non-participant observers or to others more markedly outside the community being studied.
This current project is primarily concerned with how the sociocultural context influences gambling decisions.
To understand this, a rich sense of this context is essential: what are the gamblers' world views, what are their values and beliefs, how is information structured and selectively available within the gambling environment and what are the components and dynamics both of that environment and of the gambling experience.
Non-participant observation, an experimental paradigm, or structured interviews are simply not as well-suited to answer these questions.
Participant observation, on the other hand, is ideal.
At the same time, two important shortcomings to ethnographic participant observation should be stated up front.
First, the researcher often has no means through which to identify causal relationships such as among thought processes, the environment and behavior.
The real world is inherently messy, with few if any controls to allow for correlating independent or dependent variables or for replicating results in cases where apparent causal relationships can be identified.
Without the ability to rule out confounding variables, to measurably quantify results or to replicate findings, it is difficult to be sure whether ethnographic findings are really findings at all or simply the idiosyncratic outcome of a complex mish-mash of cause and effect.
The second weakness is that what the researcher observes and remembers is necessarily subjective since there are no concrete criteria for what to record or what to attend to, and there is no permanent record to refer to for verification that what seemed significant actually is or what one remembers actually occurred.
Research psychologists, and cognitive psychologists in particular, tend to be implicitly attuned to the weaknesses of ethnographic method or any attempt at a holistic understanding of human behavior.
Much of their education has been devoted to learning about the inherent biases and failings of human subjectivity, code slota denis postal saint plaine la much of their approach is designed specifically to overcome these shortcomings through the use of careful control, replication and hypothesis testing.
Yet they also tend to be relatively unreflective about the shortcomings of reductionism and the ways in which behavior in context is more than the sum of individual psychological processes.
The psychologists' concerns are just, and the findings presented in this paper should be seen as tentative.
At the same time, the shortcomings of experimental methods and the benefits of ethnography are also undeniably true.
The current study should be seen, then, as just one part of a larger research program, the part important primarily for its absence from the larger whole, which is currently unbalanced on the side of experimental, quantitative research.
My background in blackjack My own background and experience with blackjack has contributed importantly to my decision to study this particular game and to the lens through which I have interpreted and evaluated players' performances.
As such, a few of the details of this https://yournaughtystory.com/blackjack/jouer-au-blackjack-gratuitement.html will be provided here.
Just after turning 21, I bought a used copy of in preparation for an upcoming drive through Nevada.
Although I did not know it at the time, Thorp is widely viewed as the father of contemporary card counting.
Beat the Dealer is for card counters something akin to what The Origin of Species must be for evolutionary biologists: the first great book on the subject, esteemed for its theoretical and scientific rigor, still held in high regard and a classic in the field.
Knowing the basic strategy by heart is a prerequisite for the successful implementation of any card counting system.
For the next two years after that, I read several books on card counting, eventually learning advanced methods.
I also learned that the variance in wins and losses, even when betting with the minimum stakes possible, was beyond what I could afford, given the potential reward.
My interest in card counting dwindled.
A significant observation that I made during this period was that most experienced players not only systematically violated basic strategy, but also that they often adamantly and vociferously opposed many of the basic assumptions of card counting and, apparently, of probability theory.
The choice to study blackjack players was largely influenced by this background and experience with the game.
The use of basic strategy and card counting in blackjack, both as normative models and as organizing structures for describing actual blackjack play are largely a result of my path into blackjack and the theoretical perspective which that path provided.
Had I first learned blackjack from extensive experience in the casinos, as did most of the gamblers I observed, I believe that my normative evaluation of these players, and my understanding of their actual decision processes, would be considerably different.
In particular, I think I would be more inclined to see the players' strategies and beliefs as both more reasonable and more correct than I currently do.
Had I first learned about blackjack as a gambling clinician or researcher, I believe my evaluation and understanding would again be considerably different.
In this case I might be more prone to see the strategies and beliefs as a consequence of irrational or biased cognitive and motivational processes.
The remainder of this paper will be organized into three sections.
The first section will provide details regarding the andy blackjack dealer fired of blackjack itself.
This includes blackjack rules as offered in the casinos where I conducted my fieldwork, and an introduction to both the basic strategy and card counting.
The second section will present the ethnographic findings.
Finally, the conclusion will summarize these findings and consider what has been learned of relevance to the study of gambling behavior and problem gambling.
A glossary of blackjack-specific terms that will be used throughout the article can be found in the Appendix.
Background on blackjack Casino blackjack is a somewhat complicated game with its own vocabulary, as many as five types of choices per hand, significant consequences on one's chances of winning depending on these choices, and a variety of rules and norms surrounding play.
This section click to see more provide a useful background on casino blackjack.
Part one will introduce the rules of the game in the casinos where I conducted my fieldwork.
Part two will discuss the two most widely acknowledged normative models for article source to play casino blackjack: basic strategy and card counting.
Both of these assume the goal of blackjack should be to win as much or lose as little as possible over the statistical long run.
Blackjack-specific vocabulary will be defined as it is introduced, but the author recognizes there is a lot to digest.
For that reason, a glossary of blackjack terms has been included in an appendix as click the following article reference.
Blackjack rules The goal of blackjack is to get a higher point total than the dealer without busting getting more than 21 points.
All cards are worth their face value with two exceptions: face cards jacks, queens and kings are each worth 10 points, and aces are worth either one or 11, depending on which makes a better hand.
In Indiana, blackjack is played on a felt-top table with seven places for players as compared to the six places in the image below who sit around a crescent-shaped table facing the dealer, a casino employee.
As few as one person can play, and one person can play more than one hand, although the minimum bet per hand is higher for players who wish to play more than one hand per round.
Each player competes only against the dealer, not against the other players.
Before the cards are dealt, players place their bets in front of them on the felt in a circumscribed space.
Players can bet as much as they would like constrained by a minimum and maximum bet as indicated by a sign at each table.
Bets are made in the form of casino chips that have various monetary values signified by both a color code and a printed dollar amount.
These may be purchased from the dealer at the table.
Once all bets have been placed, two cards are dealt face up to each player and two cards to the dealer, one face up and the other face down.
The latter is known as the hole card.
Players are not allowed to touch their cards; instead they signal their play choices using hand motions or by placing additional chips on the table.
Cards are dealt from a plastic box called a shoe, which holds either six or eight normal decks of cards that have been shuffled together.
The total number of decks depends on the casino and on the table's betting limit.
A blank plastic card is inserted about two-thirds of the way into the shoe after shuffling.
When the plastic card is reached after several rounds of play, that particular round is finished, and all of the cards are again shuffled to begin the next round.
The payout system in click works as follows: If the player busts or if a hand blackjack dealer does not bust and the player gets a lower point total, the player loses and the dealer takes the player's bet.
If the player and the dealer have the same amount, called a push, no money is won or lost, and the player may take his or her original bet back, leave it out for the next round, or add to it.
If the player has a higher point total than the dealer, or if the player does not bust and the dealer does, then the player wins the amount of their original bet.
If the first two cards are an ace and a 10-value card, the player or dealer has a blackjack.
Blackjack is the most powerful hand in the game, winning against all other hands, including other hands worth 21 points that are not blackjacks.
The player also receives a bonus for blackjack of an additional one half of the original bet assuming the dealer does not also have a blackjack, in which case the player and dealer push.
Once the hands have been dealt, play proceeds with the first player to the dealer's left, who must make all of his or her play choices before the next player's turn.
Players have up to five different choices in blackjack: hitting, standing, doubling down, splitting, and taking insurance or even money.
The two most common choices are between hitting or standing which involve, respectively, either taking additional cards or not taking additional cards and ending the turn.
Doubling down is an option on the player's first two cards.
This requires doubling the original bet.
At this point the player receives exactly one additional card, no more, no less.
If players would like to double down for less than the amount of their original bet, they may.
Splitting is an option if the player's first two cards have the same value, including any two 10-value cards, such as a 10 and a king.
Splitting requires the player to match his or her original bet, as with doubling down.
The dealer then usually asks whether the player wishes to double or split.
If the split cards are aces, the player can only receive one card to each ace, and if this new card is a 10-value card, the hand only see more as a normal 21, not as a blackjack.
With all other split hands, the player may hit, stand and double down as though playing a new hand.
If the dealer's face-up card is an ace, players are given the option to take insurance before they begin play.
The insurance bet is a side bet that the dealer will have a blackjack.
The standard insurance bet is half the amount of the player's original bet, although players are allowed insurance for less than half if they wish.
If the dealer has a blackjack, the insurance bet pays the player two to one, covering the amount of the player's original bet; hence, the name.
If the dealer does not have a blackjack, the insurance bet is lost, and play commences as normal.
If a player has a blackjack, given the insurance choice, this player has the option to take either even money or insurance.
If the player takes even money, the dealer pays out the amount of his or her original bet before checking the hole card blackjack return to player a blackjack, thus guaranteeing the player a win.
If the player does not take even money, play commences as usual, such more info the player wins 1.
The player may also push, neither winning nor losing, if the dealer does have a blackjack.
Taking even money results in an identical outcome to taking insurance for the full amount, although many players and many casino employees do not realize this.
In both cases, a player with blackjack will win exactly the amount of their original bet, whether or not the dealer ends up having a blackjack.
Before participants commence play, the dealer checks for a blackjack with either a 10-value or ace up-card using a mirror built into the table.
If the dealer has a blackjack, all losing bets and the corresponding cards are removed from the table, except double down or split bets, which are returned to the player.
If the dealer does not have a blackjack, play commences blackjack return to player usual.
If any players have blackjacks, they are also paid immediately and their hands removed from the table.
During a player's turn, if they bust, their bet is immediately removed and their cards taken away, such that even if the dealer subsequently busts, the player still loses.
When all the players have finished playing their hands, the dealer turns over his or her hole card.
The dealer must then hit or stand by a set of predetermined rules that do not blackjack review on the players' cards.
If the dealer's total is 16 or less, the dealer must hit.
If the total is 17 or more, the dealer must stand.
Thus, even if every player at the table has an 18 and the dealer only has a 17, the dealer must stand, losing to all players at the table.
While this set of rules is standard for the casinos where I conducted my fieldwork, there are a number of common osrs willow blackjack rule variations in the U.
These rule differences all have repercussions for how people play their hands, for how they ought to play their hands given the goal of maximizing expected value, and for the casino's advantage assuming optimal play.
A number of conventions also vary from casino to casino, such as whether the cards are dealt face up or down they are dealt face down in single- and double-deck gameswhether the player can take insurance with a blackjack or just even money, whether the player can insure or double for less, and whether people can bet on other players' hands.
Normative models Before discussing how people actually play blackjack, it is worth discussing how one might expect people to play blackjack assuming that their goal is to maximize expected winnings or to minimize expected losses.
Strategies that contribute to maximizing expected winnings will be divided into two types: 1 the basic strategy, which corresponds to the statistically best way to play each hand given that the player is not keeping track of cards removed from play; and 2 card counting, which involves tracking cards removed from play and adjusting betting and playing strategies in order to increase the likelihood of winning.
I have used these normative models as organizing structures to help sort out and evaluate the various playing strategies used by players in the casino.
In other words, I have asked, to what degree do playing strategies correspond to or vary from normative strategies, and how are such variations rules of card counting in blackjack practice by the players?
I refer to these systems as normative because they serve to increase the player's expected returns or decrease their expected losses.
Thus, for example, if the player has a 10 and a four for a total of 14, and the dealer has a 10, the player will have three choices β€” to hit, to stand or to double down.
Each of those choices has a different expected return to the player.
Hitting will cost players an average of 46.
As such, for this particular hand the normative strategy is to hit, which while costing the player nearly half of his or her bet, on average, is still less costly than the other two possible choices.
At the same time, both basic strategy and card counting should be seen as tentative measures of normative behavior.
Although it is often implicitly or explicitly assumed that a rational assessment of gambling choices should be based on the implications of these choices for expected return, the gamblers themselves may get more out of other aspects of the gambling experience.
In this case the expected return β€” and thus both basic strategy and card counting β€” will be a poor standard for the normative assessment of gambling behavior.
The degree to which basic strategy and card counting are appropriate measures will be discussed later when presenting the ethnographic findings, in which the utility of the gambling activity is examined in more detail.
The basic strategy The basic strategy indicates the best way to play each hand without using either a counting system or cheating.
People often refer to this as playing by the book.
Correct basic strategies for various rule changes were not determined until the 1960s when high speed computers were programmed to simulate all of the different hand combinations millions of times in order to determine the true odds for a specific play choice .
Playing strictly according to the basic strategy will usually decrease the casino's expected return to below one per cent, although this will vary depending on the rules at a particular establishment.
The expected cost to the player for perfect basic strategy at the casinos where I conducted my field research is 0.
The basic strategy provided below is specific to the rules for blackjack at the two riverboat casinos in Indiana where I conducted my field research.
Card-counting systems Card-counting systems are used by players to reduce the casino's advantage further, and under certain conditions, to give the player an advantage.
Unlike roulette and many other casino games, events are not independent in blackjack because cards are removed from play without being replaced for several rounds.
This changes the statistical makeup of remaining cards as well as the optimal playing strategy and the odds of winning subsequent hands.
Thus, a true optimal strategy will incorporate past cards played out of the shoe and will vary both betting and playing strategies accordingly.
Systems that do so are called card-counting systems.
It should be noted that even these systems do not involve optimal strategies in terms of expected value.
To keep track of the exact make up of all the cards in the deck, to calculate their ratio to one another, and then to determine the exact best playing strategy and the player's consequent expected value based on this information is not reasonable for even the most gifted card counters because link is cognitively too difficult for the unaided human mind.
It is possible to do so with the aid of a computer, but illegal.
Instead, card-counting systems rely on rules of thumb heuristics based on the recognition that when the remaining cards are relatively rich in nines through aces, the player has an advantage.
When the remaining cards are relatively rich in twos through sevens, the casino has an advantage.
For nearly all card-counting systems, the counter assigns positive values blackjack pygame low cards that have been removed from the shoe usually from +1 to +3, depending on the particular card value and its effect on player advantageand negative values to high cards usually from β€”1 to β€”3.
The counter then adds these values together to obtain a running count.
Since the statistical significance of a particular count depends on the number of cards remaining to be dealt, advanced systems usually require that the count be normalized by dividing this number by some fraction of the number of decks remaining to determine the true count.
When card-counters determine that they have an advantage, they bet as much as they can get away with and that their bankroll allows.
The count also affects the playing strategy.
For most hands, there is a particular count at which the player varies from the basic strategy, whether this involves choosing to hit, stand, split, double or take insurance in violation of the basic strategy.
When the count is low, there is a lower relative frequency of high cards remaining in the deck.
Both the player and the dealer are thus less likely to receive high cards.
The player will therefore both hit more often and double down and split less often than the basic strategy would prescribe.
When the count is high, there is a higher relative frequency of high cards remaining to be dealt.
Thus the player will hit less often and double down and split more often than usual.
Even skilled card counters will have a difficult time making a living counting cards, and I doubt it is possible for any to make an impressive living.
The reason for this is that the casinos take several precautions in order to foil proficient card counters.
Dealers, pit bosses and casino surveillance systems all keep a lookout for potential card counters.
Knowing what to look for, it is not difficult to spot.
If the casino determines the counter is sufficiently skilled to warrant interference, they have the option to either bar the player entrance to the casino, or simply to instruct the dealer to shuffle the cards every time the player increases his or her bet, among other possibilities.
Thus, while card-counting strategies can give the player a slight statistical advantage over the casino, it is probably no more than one per cent given the best realistic casino conditions.
The exact advantage depends largely on particular casino norms and their system for handling card counting as well as on the range of techniques used by the card counter.
Ethnographic findings The ethnographic findings are divided into five parts.
Part four explores systems used to help players determine the size of their bets during a particular round.
Part five asks the question of whether it is appropriate to assume players are trying to maximize their expected return.
Finally, part six summarizes these research findings.
Pseudo-basic strategy Of the 75 or so players I observed during my ethnographic work, not one used the basic strategy consistently.
The fact that no one did so is particularly surprising since el cortez blackjack odds strategy can be learned in less than an hour and some variation of it has been printed in nearly every blackjack book published over the last 35 years.
The gift shop in both Indiana casinos sold books with the basic strategy in them.
Nonetheless, even most of the more experienced players consistently violate the basic strategy on particular hands.
For example, nearly all players take even money on a blackjack, and a clear majority stand on 16 against a dealer's 10, even though both plays violate the basic strategy.
Do they just not know it?
Or have they learned some skewed version of it from other people at the table?
Many experienced players knowingly violate the basic strategy.
In some cases this is because they do not believe basic strategy is entirely accurate, while in other cases it is because they have conflicting strategies that override basic strategy.
More commonly, experienced players know of the basic strategy, believe it works, and believe they play according to it, but what they have learned from playing in casinos is not faithful to the strategy.
The following dialogue may demonstrate the complexity of the issue.
This conversation took place between myself, a Nepalese man with the pseudonym Arvind who has lived in Chicago for the last six years, and an American woman from Chicago whom I will call Susan.
Both consider themselves experienced blackjack players.
This conversation began shortly after a brief description of my research interests.
What do you do?
This is pure basic strategy.
It represents a cutoff between when to hit and when to stand and is a common test in blackjack books for how well a person knows basic strategy.
The statistical difference between whether it is better to hit or to stand on these two plays is small, and the cutoff itself violates a larger pattern in the basic strategy, yet the most experienced players usually adhere to basic strategy in this particular circumstance.
In addition, Susan was convinced that standing on a 16 was better than hitting when the dealer has a 10, and Arvind believed that taking insurance on a good hand a 19, 20, or 21 was right.
Both of these plays are common violations of basic strategy.
Three of the most common violations of basic strategy will be discussed below.
There are other plays that appear to systematically violate the basic strategy.
I did not get a clear sense of how frequently they occur or the reasons behind them, however, so I will not discuss them here.
Even money The most common exception to the basic strategy at the Indiana casinos seems to be taking even money with a blackjack when the dealer has an ace showing.
Most players do this, and they will sometimes vocally criticize other players for not doing so.
Nonetheless, players adhere to this deviation from basic strategy rather consistently, choosing not to gamble in one of the rare cases where the odds are in their favor to do so.
And it does provide the player a sure opportunity to make a profit on that particular bet, which in that respect is a sure thing.
Insuring good hands Another common play that violates the basic strategy is the decision to take insurance, which should never be made according to basic strategy.
A conversation between myself and Arvind, inspired by Susan, demonstrates this point.
As the player's cards approach 16, and the dealer's card approaches 10, this violation appears to become more and more common.
It also becomes more and more reasonable, statistically speaking, in terms of expected return.
The difference between hitting or standing when the player has a 16 and the dealer has a 10 is almost insignificant in terms of the odds of winning or losing.
What is interesting here, though, is the degree to which players favor the incorrect play.
In Indiana, a majority of players seemed to stand with a 16 against a dealer's 10.
Often they will urge other players to stand as well.
The following conversation between Susan and Arvind while riding on the shuttle bus provides the standard argument for standing with a 16 against a dealer's 10, as well as the standard argument for not doing so.
Susan is continuing to ask Arvind about how he plays in order, it seems, to assess his blackjack skill.
So it couldn't be better to stand on 16 when the dealer has a good hand or the casino would do it, too.
You have to assume the dealer has 20.
The first part of her argument states that a person should hit 16 because the dealer hits 16, and therefore it must be a good strategy since the casino has the advantage.
This part of her argument does not mesh with some of her other avowed playing strategies, however.
For example, earlier in the conversation she had said that she stands on a thirteen when the dealer has a two just click for source showing.
According to her current explanation, one would expect her to hit, since the dealer always hits a 13.
On the other hand, if she did not allow herself this inconsistency in beliefs her performance would be affected for the worse.
The use of inconsistent strategies that apply in some contexts and not in others is common among blackjack players, and it tends to improve the quality of their play.
Also notice the second part of her argument.
But the heuristic of assuming that the dealer has a 10 underneath is a common one that players often use to decide how to play.
In line with the previous example, however, it should be noted that the common practice of using this heuristic never, in my experience, disregards context.
It's a 16 against the dealer's 20.
You have to assume that.
These two views represent fairly common perceptions among experienced players on both sides of the issue.
Susan's argument is the more commonly accepted; Arvind's is more sophisticated in terms of probabilistic reasoning, incorporating some of the issues that make opinion blackjack basic strategy dealer card 6 deck remarkable versus standing with a 10 against a 10 such a close call.
As mentioned earlier, however, the basic strategy calls for hitting instead of standing, the play that Susan has argued for.
Although recall that earlier Arvind said that sometimes he hits dealer blackjack ace sometimes he stands.
Statistically the difference is almost arbitrary.
Pseudo-card counting As with the basic strategy, a superficial knowledge of card counting is common, although it plays a less significant role in affecting playing strategies.
Most players β€” beginners and experienced ones β€” have heard of card counting.
Among beginners there is a common misunderstanding that this involves memorizing the specific cards that have been played out of the deck.
Many if not most long-term players realize that card counting simply involves ascribing a positive or negative point value to the cards depending on whether they are good or bad for the player.
Indeed, in my experience, most players who are relatively well-experienced know that high cards and aces remaining in the shoe are good for the player and low cards are bad.
They also know that they should hit more when there are a disproportionate number of low cards remaining and stand more when there are a disproportionate number of high cards.
At the same time, when pressed for details, even these players who call themselves card counters do not know the fundamentals, including a correct basic strategy.
For these players, card counting usually means paying attention to cards that have been dealt out of the deck and using that information to inform subsequent plays.
While these systems usually do involve a valid concern with the proportion of tens to non-tens expected to occur, they are not systematic.
Indeed, there is generally not an attempt at estimating overall relative frequencies at all.
Thus, just as players make choices according to a pseudo-basic strategy that takes into account their own two-card total and the dealer's up-card, players also use pseudo-card counting systems that are sensitive to cards removed from the shoe and the directional consequences of these cards.
Unlike actual card counting systems, however, these strategies do not change the odds to the players' favor, and in most cases players would almost certainly do better to stick to their pseudo-basic strategies.
The exception is in cases where these pseudo-basic strategies are wrong, in which case, of course, anything that leads to a change will improve their lot.
There tend to be three main pseudo-card counting strategies, all of which may or may not be used by a particular gambler.
First, and least frequently, players may blackjack guide to estimate relative frequencies of tens to non-tens remaining in the shoe.
Thus, like actual card counters, they will be attuned to how many cards have been dealt since the previous shuffle, and they will have been watching for what appears to be a disproportionate frequency of tens or non-tens.
If they think many more non-tens have been removed than usual, they may increase their bet for the following round, take insurance if the dealer has an ace, double down with hand totals of 11 or less, and stand more often than they normally would with potentially busting hands.
This group is the most sophisticated of the pseudo-card counters.
They tend to be very experienced and serious players and they have often studied card counting at some point in the past.
Since they do not have a method for estimating actual ratios of tens to non-tens, and since they do not know what ratio would be significant for particular strategy or bet changes, they are still largely involved in guesswork.
While such players will commonly be encountered at the blackjack table, they nonetheless make up a small minority of perhaps five or 10 per cent of all people at the table or perhaps less.
Players of a second type are far more common.
Often people from the first group fall into this category as well.
While these players are also concerned with the relative frequency of tens to non-tens, they are not focused on the link number of cards dealt from the shoe.
They believe that if tens and non-tens are approximately equally represented in a deck of cards, then even small samples from the shoe should approximate this distribution.
When asked, most of these players will be fully cognizant of the fact that there are a certain number of high and low cards in the deck, and that when low cards are removed, this leaves a certain number behind, but they have the additional expectation that even small samples of cards from the shoe should represent the larger distribution.
This is the belief that small sample sizes should be more representative of the population from which they are drawn than is warranted.
These players do not simply believe the unrepresentative frequency of high or low cards is less usual than it in fact is.
They also believe that it will tend to be set right by the cards that immediately follow as opposed to being gradually and randomly set right through the course of the shoe, as is in fact the case.
As a consequence, members of this group see the current round of play as the most important.
Since it is easier to simply pay attention to the current round, they tend to do so.
Unlike the first group, these players generally do not use this information in making betting decisions; rather, they use it only to decide how to play their hands as well as to try to influence what cards the dealer will subsequently receive.
A third group is similar to the second, and might be seen as simply a more extreme version.
For members of this group, the most recent cards are also the most diagnostic of future probabilities, but for this group this is true even if it is clear that a representative sample of high and low cards have occurred.
Thus if three tens are followed by three fives, players commonly believe a high card is due to occur, since the three low fives occurred most recently.
This corresponds to a sequential response bias and was identified by in their study of blackjack players in the Netherlands.
Even the most experienced players express a specific concern with the most recent cards, independent of relative frequency.
This is true even if the six cards are all displayed side by side face up on the table, and even if there are exactly the same number of each type of card.
Because the most recent cards are seen to be the most predictive of the cards that immediately follow, these players often prefer to sit at the final spot before the dealer, which is commonly called third base, using a baseball analogy.
There they will sometimes click cards when they normally would not, or not take cards when they normally would, specifically to influence what cards the dealer will subsequently receive.
While the first of these three pseudo-card-counting systems is relatively rare, the latter two, in one form or the other, are quite common and used by a clear majority of long-term blackjack players at the Indiana casinos visited for this fieldwork.
Nonetheless, while all three systems can in some respect be seen as expressing a kind of gambler's fallacy, it should be noted that they are closely tied to the structure of blackjack and the fact that events are not independent in this particular game.
Most of these same players would not use corresponding betting strategies, increasing their bets after a series of losses or decreasing their bets after a series of wins.
And two players expressly stated after being asked that the same strategy would not work in roulette.
There are several exceptions to this however.
One example is with hitting or standing on a 16 against a dealer's 10, for which just one additional 10 in a six-deck shoe is sufficient to make standing instead of hitting the preferred play.
Furthermore, that particular hand is one in which players are most sensitive to these contextual cues, as observed earlier in the conversation with Arvind.
Since the players are selective about which hands depend on previous cards removed from the deck, the total cost to their expected return may be quite small.
Nonetheless, the net result of such strategies is almost certainly negative, assuming the only consideration is expected value.
If a player is sitting in a particular spot that receives several blackjacks, other players will ask jokingly if they can trade places.
Still, even though these practices are shared by most people at the table, it is unclear whether people generally think they make a difference, or whether they are just going along with the fun or trying something that cannot hurt, even if there is little hope it will help.
My experience at the table suggests that any of these options can be the case, depending on the context.
In these cases, it is not at all clear that the players would refer to their beliefs as anything other than rational.
Often the players themselves seem conflicted, as the following example suggests.
I was playing blackjack with a friend and I left to go to the bathroom, and when I returned, we both played another hand and he won.
The cases in which most players seem to sincerely believe the quality of the cards can be affected all appear to involve a concern with maintaining proper card order or disrupting improper order.
Most experienced players do not like to play with inexperienced players specifically because they believe it will hurt their chances of winning.
This is a second reason many players will watch a table before joining.
They like to determine the quality of the other players at the table before risking their money.
Another important influence related to proper order concerns playing consistently.
I would have thought that it would just be random whether a change in how other people play helps you or hurts you.
He seems not to believe that card order can predictably affect one's chances of winning and losing, and one might suspect, as I did, that this indicates more prolonged experience with blackjack.
The opposite turned out to be true, however.
He later said that he did not know how to play blackjack well at all and did not like to play cards.
The floor supervisor, on the other hand, had at least a rudimentary knowledge of card counting, and he believed he knew how to play blackjack well.
Furthermore, experienced blackjack players seemed nearly uniform in their concern with proper order.
Something about the blackjack experience seems to promote a belief in the importance of proper order β€” whether or not such a belief is warranted β€” that less experienced blackjack players might not have.
Two other examples that involve concern with proper order are worth mentioning to highlight the strength of this concern.
In the first, I was playing blackjack next to a man in his mid 40s.
It's most important just to play consistent.
I interpreted her to be showing disapproval at my apparent ignorance.
If people keep changing the way they play, then that messes up the way the cards fall.
But it really depends on how the cards are falling.
Doesn't matter how you play really.
If people at the table are losing, I'll lower my bet until something changes.
Or if we're winning and then someone leaves the table or a new person comes, I'll lower my bet to see how things are going.
But it really just depends on if you're getting the right cards or not.
In the final example, I am again speaking with Susan and Arvind on the shuttle.
Good players don't like to play with beginners because they throw the cards all off.
You're playing by the book and someone plays wrong and it ruins things for the whole table.
You gotta keep the other players in mind too.
You can't just play for yourself.
It throws off the cards.
Even if there's an empty spot where no one's playing, but the cards are running well for everyone, it's not polite to join the game.
If the cards are so-so, you win, lose, win, lose, then it doesn't matter.
If the cards are bad, then you want a person to join the shoe.
When I asked the question I recognized that the issue of proper order may be quite distinct from beliefs about luck.
It seems that these players are concerned with getting or keeping the cards in a certain pattern or order whereby they are winning more than losing.
A number of factors are important, because they allow players to identify, and if necessary change, these patterns.
Playing poorly, playing inconsistently or changing the number of hands from one round to the next disrupts the patterns.
Betting systems There are a number of systems, in addition to pseudo-basic strategy and pseudo-card counting, that players use in the belief that they increase their chances of winning.
This section will focus on betting systems.
Betting systems can be distinguished from other systems in that they are not believed to alter the likelihood of winning a particular hand.
Instead they involve varying one's bet from one round to another with the goal of betting more on the winning rounds and less on the losing ones.
Betting systems thus depend on methods for predicting which hands are more likely to win, and which hands less likely β€” before the deal takes place β€” and betting more or less accordingly.
Card counting involves a betting system because part of the player's blackjack 13 comes from betting high when the odds are in the player's favor and betting low when the odds are in the casino's favor.
It also involves a playing system, since it uses the basic strategy to minimize the casino's advantage, and it deviates from the basic strategy in certain cases when justified by the count.
I will discuss six blackjack betting systems here.
They include: 1 increasing one's bet after an improbable series of losses because a win is due, the classic example of the gambler's fallacy, 2 negative progression betting systems such as the Martingale system and 3 juegos blackjack en linea />None of the systems are normative from an expected value point of view except to the degree that they lead to higher or lower average bets.
It is also important to note that while all of the first three systems will sometimes be used, none of them are common.
Often they are explicitly condemned whereas all of the last three systems appear to be the norm among experienced players and are taken to be signs of a good blackjack player.
This is surprising since the first three strategies are most commonly associated with gamblers' false beliefs in the literature.
As far as I am aware no previous research has identified the overwhelming preference among experienced blackjack players and in my experience, gamblers more generally for increasing bets when winning as compared to increasing bets when losing.
Although the gambler's fallacy may be the best known false belief commonly held by gamblers, and it does influence violations of basic strategy, it plays almost no role in blackjack betting strategies.
Experienced players, in particular, almost this web page endorse a system, described below, that may be seen as directly contrary to this fallacy.
Negative progression betting systems Another well-known betting system that involves increasing the size continue reading one's bets when losing is the Martingale system, a member of a class of negative progression betting systems.
They are called negative progression rather than positive progression, because the bet is increased after a loss rather than after a win.
With the Martingale system, players start with a large amount of money and begin with a unit bet, doubling it each time until they win, then returning to the base bet.
Each time the player wins, he or she is ahead an additional unit bet.
Players who use this strategy reason that the odds are small that the casino will win several times in a row, and infinitely small that the casino will keep winning forever.
These two claims are true.
As long as the players have enough money to keep doubling their bet, and the casino's maximum bet is high enough, they will eventually win.
This strategy is often co-expressed with the gambler's fallacy.
So, for example, a gambler may wait for red to occur three times in roulette before placing their first minimum bet on black.
At the same time, the system itself should not be taken as an example of the gambler's fallacy.
The gambler's fallacy concerns events that have already occurred which are incorrectly judged to affect future probabilities.
Martingale systems concern series of future events for the casino that are, in fact, increasingly improbable the longer the required series.
Thus, Martingale systems, unlike common expressions of the gambler's fallacy, do usually work.
That is, players will win more often than they will lose.
The problem occurs when the player experiences the inevitable losing streak i.
In such cases, the cost to the player will be high enough on average to deplete all of the smaller wins, plus the loss of the casino's expected return on the total amount bet.
If players are looking for a way to maximize their chances of leaving the casino a winner on a particular visit and are not concerned with the high potential loss, Martingale-type systems work.
Furthermore, the success or failure of Martingale involves high variance, so that an individual's experience with it over even several months of gambling may result in more money won than lost, providing many with apparent confirmation that the system works.
Even then, if a player has had one big loss that cancelled out all winnings, she or he can often chalk this up to a failure to stick to the system.
A player can also reasonably chalk a loss up to bad luck, since one or two losses out of several wins are not, in themselves, enough to know whether it is a failure in the system or simply the downside of random variation that led to a net loss.
As a result, many novice- and intermediate-level players use Martingale-type systems, but nearly all long-time players have learned not to use it, either click here personal experience or vicariously through the experience of others.
I encountered a few players who stopped using this system while still believing it probably works.
Players I apologise, blackjack card worth what spoken with who continue to use this system do not seem to recognize this risk.
The Nepalese man, Arvind, for example, told me very confidentially and confidently that he used this system for blackjack.
But you need a lot of money.
Most players who use this system use it in roulette, not blackjack, and until this point I had never had anyone say outright that they believed blackjack could be beaten using such a system.
There are two reasons the system might be less common in blackjack.
Second, even though blackjack provides relatively good players with a higher expected return than roulette, much of this benefit comes from the opportunity to split and double down, and from the three-to-two payout for a blackjack.
The probability of losing an individual round in blackjack is actually higher than in roulette, even for the perfect basic strategy player, and so the system will fail more often than in roulette.
There are several similar systems to Martingale that involve systematic increases in bets with losses and decreases with wins.
These systems are generally uncommon in blackjack, however, so they will not be discussed further.
Chasing Rather than being a betting system, the term chasing usually implies a loss of control.
It is the act of betting higher and higher amounts in the hopes of recouping blackjack return to player losses.
As with Martingale, chasing works more often than not, since just one win will be enough to recoup the losses, but in the event that it does not, and the gambler continues to lose until the losses can no longer be recouped with a single bet.
The consequences can be devastating.
I did not meet game funny blackjack blackjack players in Indiana who recommended chasing, though I observed what appeared to be chasing a few times, and two players admitted they were doing so.
Experienced players who were not in the act of chasing universally condemned it, while many of these same gamblers admitted they occasionally lost control and did it.
Since chasing usually works, it makes sense that it would be appealing specifically after a gambler has lost more than they feel they can afford to lose.
Chasing offers a way out.
It also makes sense that after a gambler has lost even the available money with which to chase, and subsequently come to terms with that loss, that they would see chasing as the potentially devastating practice that it is.
When blackjack players use this system, it seems to come from a belief in patterns of luck.
Nearly all experienced players increase their bets after wins and decrease them after losses, often with the explicit justification that they are hot.
Indeed, many players will not sit at a table until they have seen whether the dealer is hot or cold.
Unlike the three previous systems that involve increasing bets after losses, the belief that luck runs in identifiable streaks and can be bet on to the player's advantage, appears to be shared by a clear majority of experienced blackjack players.
Many players believe that betting high when the cards are hot and low when the cards are cold is the single most important factor to winning in blackjack.
While they accept that long-term probability favors the casino, many of these players believe they can use their knowledge of streaks to take advantage of short-term fluctuations in luck, and by doing so gain an advantage over the casino.
Positive progression betting Far more common in blackjack than Martingale and other negative progression systems are positive progression systems whereby players systematically increase their bets after wins.
Usually this involves increasing bets by some fraction of the previous bet until a loss occurs, then either returning to the base bet or reducing the bet by the same fraction that it was increased.
Often the maximum bet size depends on the total amount of money the player has won or lost during the playing session such that the player will progress to higher maximum bets the more they have won.
The systems may be more or less codified and depend more or less on intuition from one player to another.
Positive progression betting usually co-occurs with a belief that outcomes run in streaks as discussed above, and it is difficult to separate one from the other.
This betting system tends to be the behavioral expression of the belief in streaks.
Betting with the house's money Many players bet more when they are ahead overall for the day.
Experimental researchers similarly found that people tend to be more risk-seeking with money won than money earned.
It should be noted that not only are casino gamblers more risk-seeking after winning, but they tend to believe such a strategy is normative.
It's the only way you'll ever really win.
You have to bet big when you get some money from the casino.
Perhaps the reason for common violations of the basic strategy is that the players have other goals in addition to or instead of maximizing their winnings.
One question I had, then, was what other reasons patrons had for playing the game.
What were their goals?
Along with the hope of winning, there are three main goals that the game of blackjack appears to satisfy.
All three may be interdependent, though, and I was unable to clearly distinguish between them.
The first goal was simply to have a good time.
I mean, what do you do in Indiana?
And at least three others stated that they gambled for enjoyment, not because they expected to win.
A second reason, which cannot be cleanly distinguished from the first, may be the desire for social interaction.
Players did not talk about this, but the behavior at the tables and on the shuttle suggests that part of the experience of the game involves friendly interaction with other people.
Shuttle drivers and patrons often know each other by name and they speak about other players and drivers who are not present by name as well.
People at the table often come to the casino together or know one another from past casino experiences.
Players also frequently comment on other players' cards, complimenting them when the cards are good, sympathizing when the cards are bad, wishing one another luck, and offering advice on how to play.
Although players at some tables did not speak at all, for the most part blackjack appeared to be a friendly social experience.
The desire for fun or for social interaction notwithstanding, the hope of winning seems to be a constant characteristic of blackjack players.
A distinction should be made here between players who expect to win, and those who expect to lose but still hope to win.
It became apparent from different conversations that many players expected to win.
One floor supervisor said that many people played in order to make a living, although I could not tell how successful such people were or what fraction of the patrons had this in mind.
A dealer said that 99 per cent of players thought they had a system to beat blackjack return to player casino.
Several players also told me that they had winning systems.
In my experience, though, most players know the odds are against them and that they will probably lose.
Nonetheless, I never encountered anyone who gave me just click for source indication that they did not at least hope to win, and conversations frequently referred to past great wins by the speaker or people who were observed to win large amounts.
While having fun and social interaction are certainly part of the experience, the hope of winning, even among gamblers who know the odds are against them, also plays an important role.
The interaction of these goals can have important repercussions and could explain a number of violations of basic strategy.
Another player explained that she never splits her tens because it makes everyone else at the table so upset, even though she sometimes likes to do it when she is playing alone.
Splitting is much more fun and twos often turn into a good hand, so why not.
Finally, it is worth noting a possible relationship between the betting systems discussed in the previous section and gambler utility.
The first three betting systems, all of which call for higher bets when losing, have unique consequences on winning experience from the latter three systems, all of which call for higher bets when winning.
Using these latter systems, players will actually leave the casino as winners less often than when using Martingale-type systems or chasing, since they will tend to bet higher amounts specifically when they are ahead, increasing the probability that they will lose all of their winnings.
At the same time, the average and maximum size of their winning sessions will be larger, since on the less common occasions when these gamblers do end their gambling sessions as winners, they were making larger than usual bets.
Finally, the average and maximum size of their losing sessions will tend to be smaller, since on the occasions when these gamblers are losing, they will lower their bet sizes, thus risking less while also reducing the probability of breaking even.
The differential structure of winning and losing experiences may play a significant role in why increasing bets when winning and decreasing them when losing is far more popular than the opposite set of strategies, particularly among the most experienced players.
An occasional big win, while avoiding costly large losses, may have more utility to the gambler than an occasional big loss with few if any big wins, even if the favored strategies result in fewer winning sessions and even if both sets of strategies have the same, slightly negative, expected value.
Indeed, Turner personal communication, 2003 observed that positive progression betting systems create a payout structure similar to that built into the design of slot machines, the most popular casino gambling activity of all.
Perhaps the utility of an occasional big win outweighs the cost of frequent though affordable losses, even if the objective sum of these losses over the long term is greater than the sum of the wins.
Summary of research results It should be recognized that experienced players conform well to the basic strategy, but they also make a number of choices that systematically violate it.
As such, it is worth distinguishing these folk- or pseudo-basic strategies from the actual mathematically-derived basic strategy.
The violations of basic strategy seem to involve a partial misunderstanding or ignorance of what basic strategy really means, as well as a belief in the norms at the table, which occasionally differ systematically from basic strategy.
Proficient card counters are exceedingly rare.
Nonetheless, experienced players use a number of techniques related to past cards removed from the shoe and incorporate basic tenets of card counting, though these systems probably hurt the players more than help them in terms of expected value.
Just as the folk conceptions of basic strategy might be termed pseudo-basic strategy, these folk conceptions of card counting might be termed pseudo-card counting, in click to see more to distinguish them from the more precise mathematically-derived methods.
There are also a wide range of practices and beliefs related to the ability to influence the outcome of cards.
These sometimes include idiosyncratic methods such as carrying a lucky charm or circling one's chair at the beginning of every shoe.
More often they include practices acknowledged by the group to work, such as having click the following article particular person cut the cards, or tapping on the table when a player gets an ace to wish them luck in getting a blackjack.
The most common practices and beliefs have to do with a concern with proper order.
Players will pay attention to how many hands are dealt at the table, the playing strategies people are using and how well people are playing, and try to keep this all consistent if the gamblers are doing well, or change it if the gamblers are doing poorly.
They will urge others to play consistently and to play according to group norms with the explanation that to do otherwise is bad for the entire table.
Another factor affecting blackjack strategies are betting systems that use previous sequences of wins and losses to determine how to bet.
One set of strategies calls for increasing one's bets when losing and decreasing one's bets when losing.
A second set of strategies calls for increasing bets when winning and decreasing bets when losing.
Although all systems are relatively well known, the first set of systems are quite rare among experienced players except, perhaps, chasingand none of them are condoned as good strategies, whereas the second set of systems are widely practiced and condoned among even the most experienced players.
For the most part, blackjack players seem concerned with maximizing their winnings.
However, they also have additional goals.
These include a desire to have https://yournaughtystory.com/blackjack/online-blackjack-casino-free.html or to be entertained, a desire for social interaction and unique goals related to both the hope of winning and the subjective experience of winning that cannot be reduced to expected value.
Conclusion: Implications for research into gambling behavior and problem gambling At the beginning of the article it was noted that a number of researchers see gamblers' false beliefs about winning and their suboptimal strategies as an important factor in why so many people gamble and why some people become problem or pathological gamblers and others do not.
The implication is that the biased or irrational cognitions of the gambler are the source of these false beliefs and suboptimal strategies.
These claims suggest three important questions: 1 Do frequent gamblers really tend to have false beliefs about winning and suboptimal strategies for doing so?
And 3 are the false beliefs and suboptimal strategies really the consequence of biased or irrational thinking on the part of the gambler?
I will consider each of these questions with reference to the research findings.
Before delving in, however, two caveats are important.
First, gamblers are a diverse group and blackjack players are no exception.
These false beliefs likely directly contribute to their decision to gamble and to their difficulty in stopping.
Furthermore, the source of these false beliefs may often be the biased or irrational cognitions of the individual, either through the expression of traditional heuristics and biases or through motivated reasoning.
They gamble either because they have a system for winning which seems reasonable, given the available information about the activity, or because they have other reasons for gambling besides the expectation of winning money.
This discussion will focus on the group most commonly observed during the ethnographic research, and this group does not fall neatly into either of these two extremes.
Second, the quality of the data obtained during the ethnographic research does not allow me to categorically answer any of these questions, particularly the second.
I have few means by which to know whether blackjack players' false beliefs and suboptimal strategies led to their choice to play blackjack, and I have even fewer means to assess causes of problem gambling behavior that were not a category of inquiry for the study.
At the same time, the ethnographic findings have implications for all three questions, and these implications will be considered here.
Do frequent blackjack players really tend to have false beliefs read article winning and suboptimal strategies for doing so?
At the same time, it should be recognized that most of these false beliefs have only a minor impact on the player's expected return.
This may be particularly true since deviations from basic strategy seem to be limited to hands for which violating basic strategy is the least costly.
Furthermore, the one set of strategies that have the largest impact on the players' expected returns β€” betting strategies that influence average bet sizes source have important consequences for the gambling experience that may provide utility beyond expected value.
Thus, while blackjack players may be incorrect to believe increasing their bets after wins increases their chances of being a long-term winner, these strategies may have survived and thrived specifically because they tend to contribute to other positive features of the gambling experience.
As such, the long answer to this question may be that gamblers have both true and false beliefs and better and worse strategies, but the false beliefs and suboptimal strategies tend not to have serious negative implications and may provide benefits and safeguards about which not even the gambler is consciously aware.
Do these false beliefs and suboptimal strategies contribute to their decision to gamble and to their progression from leisure gambler to problem gambler?
This research suggests that experienced blackjack players have a rich set of strategies and beliefs, many of which have unquestionably developed in the context of the blackjack playing experience.
Their strategies and beliefs, both true and false, provide part of the structure of the blackjack playing experience and undoubtedly contribute to the utility of playing blackjack.
In part at least, the game is enjoyable because it involves learned skills that more casino de mexico online blackjack players actually use.
This is not simply the illusion of control or the illusion of skill, even if the consequences of the strategies do not improve one's chances of winning.
For example, although I studied card counting, I might nonetheless make systematic errors in keeping the count that lead me to raise my bets and to deviate from the basic strategy in cases where I should not.
If I do this frequently enough, I may perform worse than a player who simply bets the minimum and plays by the basic strategy.
Even if this is the case, my decisions are still based on a trained skill, and the application of this skill significantly contributes to my enjoyment of the game and the utility I get from playing.
Similarly, experienced blackjack players may be better than beginners at noticing patterns in outcomes and these likely influence their probability of winning during a particular gambling session because of their corresponding betting go here />Also, they probably do apply unique skills that I, for example, do not have for deciding when to take cards or not take cards based on which cards were removed from the deck.
And all of this undoubtedly contributes to their enjoyment of blackjack and to their decision to play, just as their correct beliefs and working strategies do.
Do these strategies and beliefs contribute to problem or pathological gambling?
False beliefs and suboptimal strategies likely contribute to problem gambling in three ways.
Second, also from an impulse-control perspective, they make it more likely that the player becomes committed to the game to a point when their own best judgment and self-control, which originally may have been adequate to stop them from gambling, is not adequate any longer.
Third, to the degree that these false beliefs lead gamblers to incorrectly believe they can win, they make it more likely that gamblers will lose more than they can afford, with serious consequences.
At the same time, most of the gamblers I encountered sincerely enjoy the blackjack playing activity and seem to have developed healthy strategies for playing over an extended period without risking too much.
Specific playing strategies, while not perfect, are correct more often than not, and the endorsed betting systems seem designed to specifically ensure that players will not lose more than they can afford while still having the chance to occasionally experience a big win, which for many gamblers may be precisely what attracts them to the gambling activity.
Are false beliefs and suboptimal strategies really the consequence of biased or irrational thinking on the part of the gambler?
This, for me, is the most important question.
An implicit assumption in much gambling research is that their suboptimal strategies and false beliefs are consequences of shortcomings in the reasoning processes of the individual; correct their biased and irrational cognitions and the problem will be solved, this view suggests.
The current research suggests that the false beliefs are, to an important extent, the consequence, not the cause, of gambling activity.
The most experienced players have a rich set of strategies and beliefs that they appear to have learned during the gambling experience.
In my view, these strategies and beliefs are as rational and unbiased as other strategies and beliefs commonly used during decisions made throughout much of a healthy individual's life.
That is, they are neither rational and unbiased, nor irrational and biased.
Rather they involve the best judgments available to the players given their gambling experiences and the available information, with occasional motivated reasoning mixed in for good measure.
It was not a matter of unbiased or rational cognition any more than it was a matter of biased or irrational cognition that led me to the belief that I could make good money counting cards in blackjack, or to the subsequent belief that I could not.
Nor is it a matter of unbiased or rational cognition that led me to the conclusion that these players do not improve their expected return by increasing their bets after a win, or that led them to their conclusion that they can.
Rather, these beliefs depend importantly on complex structural features of the environment within which they and I developed our strategies and beliefs.
These include not just the physical structures, but also the information available, the belief systems of other members of the community and the complex experiential feedback given the environmental structure and dynamics.
I have no empirical evidence that the cards do not get hot or cold in ways that are predictive of future outcomes.
I accept that they do not because of my training and experience outside the gambling domain, just as the gamblers accept that they do because of their training and experience inside the gambling domain.
I have never been able to convince an experienced blackjack player who holds these beliefs that they are wrong and I have tried several timesbut in my view this is not because they are being irrational.
Indeed, they can often provide better empirical evidence and rational arguments than I can.
I am sometimes forced to admit that I take it on faith that hot and cold streaks, beyond the unpredictable expectations of random variation, do not occur.
The implication here is that the persistence of erroneous beliefs held by gamblers may depend more on characteristics of the gambling environment than it does on the irrational or biased quality of the gamblers' reasoning.
Indeed, once the structure and dynamics of the gambling environment are taken into account, many of the strategies and beliefs that originally seem biased or irrational may be seen to be inseparable from the gambling context, including its sociocultural context, and to be both rationally and empirically justified.
With an advantage of one or two per cent, even skilled card-counters will usually end up significantly down at some point during their playing period just due to normal random variation.
Among mathematicians interested in gambling, the study of risk management, or the proportion of one's bankroll that should be risked given a particular advantage and a particular variance, is something of a sub-field in its own right.
The optimum strategy in blackjack.
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Arguments for self-controlled gambling as an alternative to abstention.
Reno, NV: University of Nevada, Reno.
Gambling: A Review of the Literature.
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Gambling Behavior and Problem Gambling.
Reno, NV: Institute for the Study of Gambling and Commercial Gaming.
Blackjack Basic Strategy Calculator Version 5.
The hot hand in basketball: On the misperception of random sequences.
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Performance gaps between U.
Strategies for the management of luck and action in an urban poker parlor.
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Judgment Under Uncertainty: Heuristics and Biases.
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The illusion of control.
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The Chase: Career of the Compulsive Gambler.
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Pathological gambling: A review of the literature.
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Playing Blackjack as a Business.
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Gambling with the house money and trying to break even: The effects of prior outcomes on risky choice.
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Generation of random sequences by human subjects: A critical survey of the literature.
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It is often referred to as playing by the book.
It depends on the make up of both the player's cards and the dealer' s up-card, and it varies slightly depending on the particular blackjack rules in one casino or another.
It beats all other types of 21 i.
If the player gets a blackjack the casino pays the player three to two.
If both the player and the dealer bust, the player still loses.
This is the only tie in which the player loses and is the source of the casino's advantage in blackjack.
That is, they are hand totals from 12 to 16.
When the dealer has a two through six showing, these hands are also commonly called busting hands, since it is often assumed that the dealer has a 10-value hole card and these are in fact the up-cards for which the dealer is most likely to bust.
Card-counting systems usually require the player to 1 assign plus and minus values to low and high cards, respectively; 2 add these values as the cards are removed from play; 3 normalize this sum based on the number of cards remaining to be dealt; and 4 adjust playing and betting decisions according to the this normalized number.
Under ideal circumstances, using such systems can give the player an advantage over the casino.
Players win or lose depending on how their cards perform against the dealer's cards.
The dealer must play according to predetermined rules set by the casino that do not depend on the players' hands.
Usually these rules require the dealer to hit with 16 or less and to stand with 17 or more, although hitting with a soft 17 is also common.
In turn they get exactly one additional card.
Players have the option to do this after the deal, but only with their initial two cards or with the new two-card hand created after splitting.
This is the first person to play after the deal.
Third base refers to the player closest to the dealer's right.
This is the last person to play before the dealer.
If the ace can be used as either an 11 or a one, this is called a soft hand.
For example, if the player or dealer has an ace and a five this is referred to as a soft 16 not a soft six.
Players can hit this hand without risk, since even receiving a 10 would only make the hand a hard 16.
Players tap their fingers or move their hands toward themselves to indicate that they want to hit.
Players do not get to see this card until after they have finished making their play choices.
The dealer then looks at his or her hole card.
If there is a 10-value card, thus giving the dealer a blackjack, the insurance bet pays two to one, thus covering the initial bet.
If the player has a blackjack when the dealer has an ace up, the player has the option to take even money.
That is, the player can win exactly the amount of their original bet, before the dealer checks his or her hole card for a blackjack.
This compares to not taking even money and either winning three to two for the blackjack, or pushing and winning nothing if the dealer ends up having a blackjack.
Taking even money turns out to be monetarily identical to taking insurance.
Both plays have a negative expected return.
The inside of this oval is known as the pit.
Pit bosses are the highest level of manager within a pit.
Floor supervisors are similar to pit bosses except that their domain is smaller.
They are responsible for supervising anywhere from one to four tables read more on the game and the time of day, whereas the pit boss is responsible for the entire pit.
The player neither wins nor loses.
The dealer draws cards from the shoe to deal to the players.
Blackjack games use from one to eight decks.
One or two deck games do not use a shoe; four, six, and eight deck games do.
Players can split the same card up to three times in a single hand thus playing up to four separate hands.
Players can only split aces once, and they are not allowed to hit after each ace is made into a two-card hand.
If either or both of the split aces get tens, they are not treated as blackjacks but instead as standard twenty-ones.
That is, they lose to a dealer blackjack, push to a dealer's 21, and only payout one to one, rather than three to two.
In other words, standing involves the choice to stop taking additional cards.
Players signal this by holding their hand flesh and blood, not cards horizontally above their cards and waving it back and forth.
Copyright Β© 2019 Centre for Addiction and Mental Health Editor-in-chief: Nigel E.

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Simply put, the return percentage is the percentage of the bet that would be returned to the players if every blackjack play decision were statistically correct. In other words, a 95% payout rate means 100 minus 95, or a 5% house edge. For the blackjack player, this means a loss of 5% of their blackjack bets.


Enjoy!
Blackjack Rules - Learn How to Play 21 - [Tips & Best Practices]
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Atthe game is faster, the minimum bets are smaller, and the variety of blackjack games available at online casinos is much larger than that of their brick and mortar counterparts.
As a result, blackjack is even more popular online in New Jersey than it is live.
Outside of a pair of NJ online gambling sites that offer of the same variety you will find in traditional casinos, the online blackjack games at New Jersey online casinos are a little different.
Online casinos use random number generators in place of dealers and card shuffling machines.
In fact, these random number generators essentially shuffle the cards between hands, rendering card-counting strategies useless.
However, that does not necessarily mean New Jersey online blackjack games are tougher to beat.
Return to player rates Return to player RTP rate is one measurement used to decipher how easy, or difficult, a particular casino game is to beat.
It is a percentage showing how much of an initial investment players should expect a particular game to return over the long run.
However, over the long term, a game should stay true to its RTP rate.
For example, if a game has a RTP rate of 98.
Again, this is a long-term figure that comes with no guarantees.
The RTP rate on hundreds of different and electronic available at New Jersey online casinos range from a low of 94.
This tool publishes the RTP for more than 245 online casino games, including all blackjack variations, helping you find the highest returns available.
NJ online gambling sites offer a number of different blackjack games with varying rules that can have a big effect on RTP rates.
Minimum bets are smaller, making the game more accessible.
Plus, the variety of games available at each and every online casino is much greater.
With computers and random number generators doing the shuffling, most of the time, card counting is out.
However, the rules can often be more favorable to the player online.
Of course, not all online blackjack games, and for that matter, the New Jersey online casino sites that host them, are built the same.
Single-deck Blackjack The Single-deck Blackjack games at and offer the best odds of any online casino game in New Jersey.
The RTP rate is an unbeatable 99.
Even at brick and mortar casinos, Single-deck Blackjack games have always been considered the easiest way to beat blackjack return to player casino.
This increases the RTP rate right out of the gate.
Atlantic City Blackjack Tropicana and Virgin also offer the second-best odds of any online blackjack game in New Jersey with Atlantic City Blackjack.
Atlantic City Blackjack at Tropicana and Virgin offers a RTP rate of 99.
Only Single-deck Blackjack on the same sites is better.
The RTP on Atlantic City Blackjack is tweaked through a few key rule changes.
However, the game features a RTP rate of 99.
This is the third-best RTP rate for any blackjack game in New Jersey.
Except for the larger bets required, High Stakes Blackjack is essentially the same game as Atlantic City Blackjack.
Vegas Strip Blackjack also features a 99.
This blackjack variation was just released in New Jersey in May 2017 and it offers the chance to make up to 12 different bets and side bets on every hand.
The game also includes a feature allowing players to stop the random number generator from shuffling the virtual deck after each hand.
In theory, this could bring card-counting strategy back into play.
Vegas Downtown Blackjack The Tropicana and Virgi n title Vegas Downtown Blackjack has an RTP rate of 99.
This is basic blackjack game with rule variations similar to Vegas Strip Blackjack.
The difference between the two games is that Vegas Downtown Blackjack is played with a two-deck shoe instead of four.
Vegas Blackjack Vegas Blackjack, which is available on and in New Jersey, offers an RTP rate of 99.
Sidebet Blackjack offers eight different varieties of online blackjack, but the game with its best RTP rate is Sidebet Blackjack.
The game has a 99.
Take a look at live dealer games in New Jersey.
There are close to a half dozen and counting Slingo variations online.
Top online blackjack in New Jersey by return offers the best online blackjack table, which is also the best game at all New Jersey Internet casinos.
That is Single Deck Blackjack.
Players can double when the first two cards blackjack return to player 9, 10 and 11 only and not after splitting.
This means that the player acts before the dealer gets its second card.
This changes how players should act when the dealer is showing an ace blackjack return to player a face because it does not check for blackjack before a player doubles down or splits.
The player loses all splits and double bets if the dealer ends up with blackjack.
The house edge for this game is 0.
The second best New Jersey online blackjack game is Single Deck Blackjack at and Party More info />This game only allows double down on two cards when the total is 9, 10 and 11 and not after splitting.
The dealer hits read article 17.
Unlike the Betfair single deck game, the dealer receives its card before the player acts.
The house edge for this game is 0.
The best game that is not single deck offers four decks.
It is called Single Player Blackjack at Borgata and Party Poker.
This game allows players to double down any two cards before and after splitting.
The house edge is 0.
How to play blackjack The goal of blackjack is to get as close to 21 without going over.
A count of 22 or more is a bust.
A player going over 21 automatically loses.
If the dealer busts, the player wins.
Even money is won if the player has more points than the dealer without going over 21.
If the dealer has more points, the house wins.
When the player and dealer have the same valued hand then there is a push, meaning the player gets his bet back.
All number cards are face value in points.
Jacks, queens and kings are worth 10 points.
An ace may be used as either a 1 or 11, whichever benefits the hand the most.
The deal starts with the player and dealer receiving two cards.
The dealer receives one card up and one down.
The first step involves the dealer checking for a blackjack.
This only occurs if the dealer is showing an ace or a ten-value card.
If the live blackjack stream card is a ten-value card, the dealer will peek to see if there is an ace in the hole.
If the dealer has an ace, the hand ends immediately.
The player loses unless he also has blackjack.
The player and dealer having blackjack in the same hand results in a push.
Insurance If the dealer is showing an ace, he will ask for insurance.
https://yournaughtystory.com/blackjack/blackjack-21-blackjackist-developer-console.html may bet half of their wager to insure the entire amount.
If the dealer has blackjack, the insurance pays 2-1.
This creates a push.
If the dealer does not have blackjack, the insurance bet loses and the hand continues as normal.
Insurance has a house edge of 6.
European Blackjack does not deal the hole card until after the player has acted.
This means that the hand will play out before insurance is paid.
Player blackjack A player dealt an ace and a ten-value card is paid 3-2.
If the player and dealer both have blackjack then the hand is a push.
Player actions Once the blackjacks are resolved, players have several options.
Stand A player satisfied with his point total may stand at any time.
No more blackjack always taking even money are drawn.
Hit A player that wants to draw a card hits.
Players can hit until they choose to stand or go over 21.
Double Down A player may double his bet and take just one card.
This can only be done on the first two cards dealt.
The player must keep the dealt card and may not draw any other cards.
Split A player dealt a pair may split the two cards into two separate hands.
This requires double the original bet.
Most games allow players to double down after splitting.
Aces may only receive one card on each.
An ace and a face in a split hand are 21, but not a blackjack.
Surrender Surrender is blackjack new york city on the first two cards.
This game returns half of the original bet.
Blackjack strategy and tips Counting cards Card counting is easily the most popular blackjack strategy.
Movies have been made about the most successful card counting teams in the world.
Their exploits are the stuff of legend in the casino and gaming industry.
However, it is blackjack return to player upon by most casinos.
In fact, the list of players barred by casinos across the United States for counting cards at the blackjack tables this web page to grow almost daily.
Many players successfully employ it at land-based casinos around the world.
However, that same success has not been duplicated online.
New Jersey online casinos employ random number generators.
These essentially act the same way as a continuous shuffle machine in blackjack games.
This makes each card dealt independent, random, and impossible to keep count of.
Of course, there are blackjack games available at New Jersey online casinos.
However, even the most experienced card counters may have difficulty employing the same strategies they do in person with the same speed and accuracy.
Blackjack betting systems THE MARTINGALE SYSTEM The Martingale System is a negative progression system for blackjack betting that involves increasing bets secret work blackjack does code every loss in an effort to pull back to even.
A player must keep doubling the bet until they source a win and break even.
Moderate profits are found collecting wins on the initial bet.
Additionally, players employing the Martingale System need to pay strict attention to table limits.
Doubling the bet with each loss quickly adds up.
When the table limit is reached, you could be shut out.
The Martingale System is a risky blackjack strategy.
Essentially, a player employing the parlay system would double the bet after every win.
Those who have been successful with the parlay system set strict win and loss limits and stick to them.
On the same accord, setting a loss limit allows players to avoid extended losing streaks.
However, it is just as important to set win and loss limits when employing this system online as it is offline.
OTHER POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE PROGRESSION SYSTEMS There is a myriad of variations on the Martingale and parlay systems.
Most involve varying the bet sizing in one way or another in a less-than scientific fashion.
There is the Paroli system, a positive betting progression system with incrementally increased bets that helps players avoid letting all profits ride like the parlay system.
Similarly, the 1-3-2-6 betting blackjack return to player is a positive betting progression system using multiples of 1,3,2, and 6 on each successive bet for some undetermined reason.
Players can employ these betting systems, or any other variation of positive and negative progression systems, to online blackjack games.
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Blackjack playing strategies and beliefs: A view from the field Bennis Journal of Gambling Issues Will Bennis University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, U.
Chicago, IL 60637 U.
In February 2004, he will begin a postdoctoral fellowship at the Center for Adaptive Behavior and Cognition at the Max Planck Institute for Human Development in Berlin.
His research concerns how belief systems and the sociocultural environment influence decision-making processes and conceptions of rationality.
His particular focus is on casino gamblers' strategies for and beliefs about winning.
Abstract A great deal of research learn more here the psychology of gambling has been conducted that has looked at non-experienced gamblers in laboratory or classroom settings.
Yet there has been comparatively little research examining the practices and beliefs of actual gamblers within their natural gambling context.
The current research contributes to the naturalistic study of casino gamblers.
It reports the results of 10 weeks of ethnographic participant observation conducted in 1999 in two Indiana riverboat casinos located about Β½ hour from Chicago.
The blackjack return to player examines blackjack players' strategies for and beliefs about winning as explained and understood by the gamblers themselves.
It uses blackjack's basic strategy and card counting as organizing principles around which to discuss and assess these strategies and beliefs.
Introduction Gambling is a large and growing industry in the United States and around the world .
In Europe between 1986 and 1996, legalized casinos expanded from 20 to 32 countries.
In 2002, Americans spent more on legal gambling than on movies, theme parks, spectator sports and video games combined A common explanation for the widespread choice to gamble, as well as the continuation of gambling behavior to the point where it becomes a problem, is that gamblers have biased or irrational cognitions, both about their chances of winning and about how best to play the games once the choice to gamble has been made ; ; ; ; ; ; .
At the same time, a number of researchers have suggested that too much of this research has been conducted in laboratory contexts using non-gamblers .
Psychological research examining how gambling strategies and beliefs about winning are influenced by the structure and dynamics of the gambling environment β€” and, in particular, the sociocultural environment β€” is exceedingly rare ; .
Ethnographic work exploring casino gamblers' subjective understandings and rationales for their beliefs is nearly as difficult to come by for some exceptions to this see ; ; ; .
The current study takes a step toward addressing this paucity of real-world research.
It involves field observations from 10 weeks of ethnographic participant-observation conducted in the spring of 1999 on two Indiana riverboat casinos located about Β½ hour from Chicago.
The focus will be on the practices and beliefs surrounding casino blackjack play: what common strategies do blackjack players use when playing the game and how are these strategies understood by the players themselves?
Most of the fieldwork was conducted either on a casino shuttle carrying passengers to and from downtown Chicago hotels or at blackjack tables in the two casinos.
A few additional conversations took place in other venues as well β€” at the casino buffet, waiting in line to board the ship, and, in one case, during an interview with a floor supervisor.
Why ethnographic participant-observation research?
Ethnographic participant-observation can be distinguished from purely observational methods in that the researcher attempts to live within the community being studied and to participate in their lifestyle and practices as opposed to standing outside the community.
Where a non-participant-observer often approaches subjects with pre-existing categories or concepts to be measured, the participant-observer tends to seek out the categories and concepts widely shared by members of the group being studied.
My role as participant, then, was as a fellow gambler, who traveled to the casinos; risked, won, and lost money; and engaged with the other gamblers as one of them.
For a detailed description of participant-observation as a research methodology see.
There are three main strengths that I believe make ethnographic participant-observation ideal for studying gambling behavior in context.
Second, participant observation allows the researcher a richness of content that is not available with methods involving pre-arranged questions and pre-determined causal variables.
Participant observation allows the researcher to be surprised with relevant information that may have been inadvertently screened out by other research methods.
Third, and most importantly, participant observation allows the researcher richer access to the practices, values, beliefs and experiences of the people being studied compared with other methods.
It allows the researcher to share the subjective experiences of members of the community in this case, the subjective experience of gambling.
It also opens the researcher up to both implicit and explicit values and beliefs that will often not be visible to non-participant observers or to others more markedly outside the community being studied.
This current project is primarily concerned with how the sociocultural context influences gambling decisions.
To understand this, a rich sense of this context is essential: what are the gamblers' world views, what are their values and beliefs, how is information structured and selectively available within the gambling environment and what are the components and dynamics both of that environment and of the gambling experience.
Non-participant observation, an experimental paradigm, or structured interviews are simply not as well-suited to answer these questions.
Participant observation, on the other hand, is ideal.
At the same time, two important shortcomings to ethnographic participant observation should be stated up front.
First, the researcher often has no means through which to identify causal relationships such as among thought processes, the environment and behavior.
The real world is inherently messy, with few if any controls to allow for correlating independent or dependent variables or for replicating results in cases where apparent causal relationships can be identified.
Without the ability to rule out confounding variables, to measurably quantify results or to replicate findings, it is difficult to be sure whether ethnographic findings are really findings at all or simply the idiosyncratic outcome of a complex mish-mash of cause and effect.
The second weakness is that what the researcher observes and remembers is necessarily subjective since there are no concrete criteria for what to record or what to attend to, and there is no permanent record to refer to for verification that what seemed significant actually is or what one remembers actually occurred.
Research psychologists, and cognitive psychologists in particular, tend to be implicitly attuned to the weaknesses of ethnographic method or any attempt at a holistic understanding of human behavior.
Much of their education has been devoted to learning about the inherent biases and failings of human subjectivity, and much of their approach is designed specifically to overcome these shortcomings through the use of careful control, replication and hypothesis testing.
Yet they also tend to be relatively unreflective about the shortcomings of reductionism and the ways in which behavior in context is more than the sum of individual psychological processes.
The psychologists' concerns are just, and the findings presented in this paper should be seen as tentative.
At the same time, the shortcomings of experimental methods and the benefits of ethnography are also undeniably true.
The current study should be seen, then, as just one part of a larger research program, the part important primarily for its absence from the larger whole, which is currently unbalanced on the side of experimental, quantitative research.
My background in blackjack My own background and experience with blackjack has contributed importantly to my decision to study this particular game and to the lens through which I have interpreted and evaluated players' performances.
As such, a few of the details of this background will be provided here.
Just after turning 21, I bought a used copy of in preparation for an upcoming drive through Nevada.
Although I did not know it at the time, Thorp is widely viewed as the father of contemporary card counting.
Beat the Dealer is for card counters something akin to what The Origin of Species must be for evolutionary biologists: the first great book on the subject, esteemed for its theoretical and scientific rigor, still held in high regard and a classic in the field.
Knowing the basic strategy by heart is a prerequisite for the successful implementation of any card counting system.
For the next two years after that, I read several books on card counting, eventually learning advanced methods.
I also learned that the variance in wins and losses, even when betting with the minimum stakes possible, was beyond what I could afford, given the potential reward.
My interest in card counting dwindled.
A significant observation that I made during this period was that most experienced players not only systematically violated basic strategy, but also that they often adamantly and vociferously opposed many of the basic assumptions of card counting and, apparently, of probability theory.
The choice to study blackjack players was largely influenced by this background and experience with the game.
The use of basic strategy and card counting in blackjack, both as normative models and as organizing structures for describing actual blackjack play are largely a result of my path into blackjack and the theoretical perspective which that path provided.
Had I first learned blackjack from extensive experience in the casinos, as did most of the gamblers I observed, I believe that my normative evaluation of these players, and my understanding of their actual decision processes, would be considerably different.
In particular, I think I would be more inclined to see the players' strategies and beliefs as both more reasonable and more correct than I currently do.
Had I first learned about blackjack as a gambling clinician or researcher, I believe my evaluation and understanding would again be considerably different.
In this case I might be more prone to see the strategies and beliefs as a consequence of irrational or biased cognitive and motivational processes.
The remainder of this paper will be organized into three sections.
The first section will provide details regarding the game of blackjack itself.
This includes blackjack rules as offered in the casinos where I conducted my fieldwork, and an introduction to both the basic strategy and card counting.
The second section will present the ethnographic findings.
Finally, the conclusion will summarize these findings and consider what has been learned of relevance to the study of gambling behavior and problem gambling.
A glossary of blackjack-specific terms that will be used throughout the article can be found in the Appendix.
Background on blackjack Casino blackjack is a somewhat complicated game with its own vocabulary, as many as five types of choices per hand, significant consequences on one's chances of winning depending on these choices, and a variety of rules and norms surrounding play.
This section will provide a useful background on casino blackjack.
Part one will introduce the rules of the game in the casinos where I conducted my fieldwork.
Part two will discuss the two most widely acknowledged normative models for how to play casino blackjack: basic strategy and card counting.
Both of these assume the casually live casino blackjack stream all of blackjack should be to win as much or lose as read article as possible over the statistical long run.
Blackjack-specific vocabulary will be defined as it is introduced, but the author recognizes there is a lot to digest.
For that reason, a glossary of blackjack terms has been included in an appendix as a reference.
Blackjack rules The goal of blackjack is to get a higher point total than the dealer without busting getting more than 21 points.
All cards are worth their face value with two exceptions: face cards jacks, queens and kings are each worth 10 points, and aces are worth either one or 11, depending on which makes a better hand.
In Indiana, blackjack is played on a felt-top table with seven places for this web page as compared to the six places in the image below who sit around a crescent-shaped table facing the dealer, a casino employee.
As few as one person can play, and one person can play more than one hand, although the minimum bet per hand is higher for players who wish to play more than one hand per round.
Each player competes only against the dealer, not against the other players.
Before the cards are dealt, players blackjack return to player their bets in front of link on the felt in a circumscribed space.
Players can bet as much as they would like constrained https://yournaughtystory.com/blackjack/iphone-blackjack-rigged.html a minimum and maximum bet as indicated by a sign at each table.
Bets are made in the form of casino chips that have various monetary values signified by both a color code and a printed dollar amount.
These may be purchased from the dealer at the table.
Once all bets have been placed, two cards are dealt face up to each player and two cards to the dealer, one face up and the other face down.
The latter is known as the hole card.
Players are not allowed to touch their cards; instead they signal their play choices using hand motions or by placing additional chips on the table.
Cards are dealt from a plastic box called a shoe, which holds either six or eight normal decks of cards that have been shuffled together.
The total number of decks depends on the casino and on the table's betting limit.
A blank plastic card is inserted about two-thirds of the way into the shoe after shuffling.
When the plastic card is reached after several rounds of play, that particular round is finished, and all of the cards are again shuffled to begin the next round.
The payout system in blackjack works as follows: If the player busts or if the dealer does not bust and the player gets a lower point total, the player loses and the dealer takes the player's bet.
If the player and the dealer have the same amount, called a push, no money is won or lost, and the player may take his or her original bet back, leave it out for the next round, or add to it.
If the player has a higher point total than the dealer, or if the player does not bust and the dealer does, then the player wins the amount of their original bet.
If the first two cards are an ace and a 10-value card, the player or dealer has a blackjack.
Blackjack is the most powerful hand in the game, winning against all other hands, including other hands worth 21 points that are not blackjacks.
The player also receives a bonus for blackjack of an additional one half of the click the following article bet assuming the dealer does not also have a blackjack, in which case the player and dealer push.
Once the hands have been dealt, play proceeds with the first player to the dealer's left, who must make all of his or her play choices before the next player's turn.
Players have up to five different choices in blackjack: hitting, standing, doubling down, splitting, and taking insurance or even money.
The two most common choices are between hitting or standing which involve, respectively, either taking additional cards or not taking additional cards and ending the turn.
Doubling down is an option on the player's first two cards.
This requires doubling the original bet.
At this point the player receives exactly one additional card, no more, no less.
If players would like to double down for less than the amount of their original bet, they may.
Splitting is an option if the player's first two cards have the same value, including any two 10-value cards, such as a 10 and a king.
Splitting requires the player to match his or her original bet, as with doubling down.
The dealer then usually asks whether the player wishes sorry, blackjack plus 3 card poker payouts congratulate double or split.
If the split cards are aces, the player can only receive one card to each ace, and if this new card is a 10-value card, the hand only counts as a normal 21, not as a blackjack.
With all other split hands, the player may hit, stand and double down as though playing a new hand.
If the dealer's face-up https://yournaughtystory.com/blackjack/math-blackjack-probability.html is an ace, players are given the option to take insurance before they begin play.
The insurance bet is a side bet that the dealer will have a blackjack.
The standard insurance bet is half the amount of the player's original bet, although players are allowed insurance for less than half if they wish.
If the dealer has a blackjack, the insurance bet pays the player two to one, covering the amount click the player's original bet; hence, the name.
If the dealer does not have a blackjack, the insurance bet is lost, and play commences as normal.
If a player has a blackjack, given the insurance choice, this player has the option to take either even money or insurance.
If the player takes even money, the dealer pays out the amount of his or her original bet before checking the hole card for a blackjack, thus guaranteeing the tips pro blackjack a win.
If the player does not take even money, play commences as usual, such that the player wins 1.
The player may also push, neither winning nor losing, if the dealer does have a blackjack.
Taking even money results in an identical outcome to blackjack card counting system insurance for the full amount, although many players and many casino employees do not realize this.
In both cases, a player with blackjack will win exactly the amount of their original bet, whether or not the dealer ends up having a blackjack.
Before participants commence play, the dealer checks for a blackjack with either a 10-value or ace up-card using a mirror built into the table.
If the dealer has a blackjack, all losing bets and the corresponding cards are removed from the table, except double down or split bets, which are returned to the player.
If the dealer does not have a blackjack, play commences as usual.
If any players have blackjacks, they are also paid immediately and their hands removed from the table.
During a player's turn, if they bust, their bet is immediately removed and their cards taken away, such that even if the dealer subsequently busts, the player still loses.
When all the players have finished playing their hands, the dealer turns over his or her hole card.
The dealer must then hit or stand by a set of predetermined rules that do not depend on the players' cards.
If the dealer's total is 16 or less, the dealer must hit.
If the total is 17 or more, the dealer must stand.
Thus, even if every player at the table has an 18 and the dealer only has a 17, the dealer must stand, losing to all players at the table.
While this set of rules is standard for the casinos where I conducted my fieldwork, there are a number of common blackjack rule variations in the U.
These rule differences all have repercussions for how people play their hands, for how they ought to play their hands given the goal of maximizing expected value, and for the casino's advantage assuming optimal play.
A number of conventions also vary from casino to casino, such as whether the cards are dealt face up or down they are dealt face down in single- and double-deck gameswhether the player can take insurance with a blackjack or just even money, whether the player can insure or double for less, and whether people can bet on other players' hands.
Normative models Before discussing how people actually play blackjack, it is worth discussing how one might expect people to play blackjack assuming that their goal is to maximize expected winnings or to minimize expected losses.
Strategies that contribute to maximizing expected winnings will be divided into two types: 1 the basic strategy, which corresponds to the statistically best way to play each hand given that the player is not keeping track of cards removed from play; and 2 card counting, which involves tracking cards removed from play and adjusting betting and playing strategies in order to increase the likelihood of winning.
I have used these normative models as organizing structures to help sort out and evaluate the various playing strategies used by players in the casino.
blackjack 21 poker other words, I have asked, to what degree do playing strategies correspond to or vary from normative strategies, and how are such variations understood by the players?
I refer to these systems as normative because they serve to increase the player's expected returns or decrease their expected losses.
Thus, for click the following article, if the player has a 10 and a four for a total of 14, and the dealer has a 10, the player will have three choices β€” to hit, to stand or to double down.
Each of those choices has a different expected return to the player.
Hitting will cost players an average of 46.
As such, for this particular hand the normative strategy is to hit, which while costing the player nearly half of his or her bet, on average, is still less costly than the other two possible choices.
At the same time, both basic strategy and card counting should be seen as tentative measures of church will blackjack free baptist behavior.
Although it is often implicitly or explicitly assumed that a rational assessment of gambling choices should be based on the implications of these choices for expected return, the gamblers themselves may get more out of other aspects of the gambling experience.
In this case the expected return β€” and thus both basic strategy and card counting β€” will be a poor standard for the normative assessment of gambling behavior.
The degree to which basic strategy and card counting are appropriate measures will be discussed later when presenting the ethnographic findings, in which the utility of the gambling activity is examined in more detail.
The basic strategy The basic strategy indicates the best way to play each hand without using either a counting system or cheating.
People often refer to this as playing by the book.
Correct basic strategies for various rule changes were not determined until the 1960s when high speed computers were programmed to simulate all of the different hand combinations millions of times in order to determine the true odds for a specific play choice .
Playing strictly according to the basic strategy will usually decrease the casino's expected return to below one per cent, although this will vary depending on the rules at a particular establishment.
The expected cost to the player for blackjack return to player basic strategy at the casinos where I conducted my field research is 0.
The basic strategy provided below is specific to the rules for blackjack at the two riverboat casinos in Indiana where I conducted my field research.
Card-counting systems Card-counting systems are used by players to reduce the casino's advantage further, and under certain conditions, to give the player an advantage.
Unlike roulette and many other casino games, events are not independent in blackjack because cards are removed from play without being replaced for several rounds.
This changes the statistical makeup of remaining cards as well as the optimal playing strategy and the odds of winning subsequent hands.
Thus, a true optimal strategy will incorporate past cards played out of the shoe and will vary both betting and playing strategies accordingly.
Systems that do so are called card-counting systems.
It should be noted that even these systems do not involve optimal strategies in terms of expected value.
To keep track of the exact make up of all the cards in the deck, to calculate their ratio to one another, and then to determine the exact best playing strategy and the player's consequent expected value based on this information is not reasonable for even the most gifted card counters because it is cognitively too difficult for the unaided human mind.
It is possible to do so with the aid of a computer, but illegal.
Instead, card-counting systems rely on rules of thumb heuristics based on the recognition that when the remaining cards are relatively rich in nines through aces, the player has an advantage.
When the remaining cards are relatively rich in twos through sevens, the casino has an advantage.
For nearly all card-counting https://yournaughtystory.com/blackjack/blackjack-apprentice-com.html, the counter assigns positive values to low cards that have been removed from the shoe usually from +1 to +3, depending on the particular card value and its effect on player advantageand negative values to high cards usually from β€”1 to β€”3.
The counter then adds these values together to obtain a running count.
Since the statistical significance of a particular count depends on the number of cards remaining to be dealt, advanced systems usually require that the count be normalized by dividing this number by some fraction of the number of decks remaining to determine the true count.
When card-counters determine that they have an advantage, they bet as much as they can get away with and that their bankroll allows.
The count also affects the playing strategy.
For most hands, there is a particular count at which the player varies from the basic strategy, whether this involves choosing to hit, stand, split, double or take insurance in violation of the basic strategy.
When the count is low, there is a lower relative frequency of high cards remaining in the deck.
Both the player and the dealer are thus less likely to receive high cards.
The player will therefore both hit more often and double down and split less often than the basic strategy would prescribe.
When the count is high, there is a higher relative frequency of high cards remaining to be dealt.
Thus the player will hit less often and double down and split more often than usual.
Even skilled card counters will have a difficult time making a living counting cards, and I doubt it is possible for any to make an impressive living.
The reason for this is that the casinos take several precautions in order to foil proficient card counters.
Dealers, pit bosses and casino surveillance systems all keep a lookout for potential card counters.
Knowing what to look for, it is not difficult to spot.
If the casino determines the counter is sufficiently skilled to warrant interference, they have the option to either bar the player entrance to the casino, or simply to instruct the dealer to shuffle the cards every time the player increases his or her bet, among other possibilities.
Thus, while card-counting strategies can give the player a slight statistical advantage over the casino, it is probably no more than one per cent given the best realistic casino conditions.
The exact advantage depends largely on particular casino norms and their system for handling card counting as well as on the range of techniques used by the card counter.
Ethnographic findings The ethnographic findings are divided into five parts.
Part four explores systems used to help players determine the size of their bets during a particular round.
Part five asks the question of whether it is appropriate to assume players are trying to maximize their expected return.
Finally, part six summarizes these research findings.
Pseudo-basic strategy Of the 75 or so players I observed during my ethnographic work, not one used the basic strategy consistently.
The fact that no one did so is particularly surprising since the strategy can be learned in less than an hour and some variation of it has been printed in nearly every blackjack book published over the last 35 years.
The gift shop in both Indiana casinos sold books with the basic strategy in them.
Nonetheless, even most of the more experienced players consistently violate the basic strategy on particular hands.
For example, nearly all players take even money on a blackjack, and a clear majority stand on 16 against a dealer's 10, even though both plays violate the basic strategy.
Do they just not know it?
Or have they learned some skewed version of it from other people at the table?
Many experienced players knowingly violate the basic strategy.
In some cases this is because they do not believe basic strategy is entirely accurate, while in other cases it is because they have conflicting strategies that override basic strategy.
More commonly, experienced players know of the basic strategy, believe it works, and believe they play according to it, but what they have learned from playing in casinos is not faithful to the strategy.
The following dialogue may demonstrate the complexity of the issue.
This conversation took place between myself, a Nepalese man with the pseudonym Arvind who has lived in Chicago for the last six years, and an American woman from Chicago whom I will call Susan.
Both consider themselves experienced blackjack players.
This conversation began shortly after a brief description of my research interests.
What do you do?
This is pure basic strategy.
It represents a cutoff between when to hit and when to stand and is a common test in blackjack books for how well a person knows basic strategy.
The statistical difference between whether it is better to hit or to stand on these two plays is small, and the cutoff itself violates a larger pattern in the basic strategy, yet the most experienced players usually adhere to basic strategy in this particular circumstance.
In addition, Susan was convinced that standing on a 16 was better than hitting when the dealer has a 10, and Arvind believed that taking insurance on a good hand a 19, 20, or 21 was right.
Both of these plays are common violations of basic strategy.
Three of the most common violations of jouer au gratuitement strategy will be discussed below.
There are other plays that appear to systematically violate the basic strategy.
I did not get a clear sense of how frequently they occur or the reasons behind them, however, so I will not discuss them here.
Even money The most common exception to the basic strategy at the Indiana casinos seems to be taking even money with a blackjack when the dealer has an ace showing.
Most players do this, and they will sometimes vocally criticize other players for not doing so.
Nonetheless, players adhere to this deviation from basic strategy rather consistently, choosing not to gamble in one of the rare cases where the odds are in their favor to do so.
And it does provide the player a sure opportunity to make a profit on that particular bet, which in that respect is a sure thing.
Insuring good hands Another common play that violates the basic strategy is the decision to take insurance, which should never be made according to basic strategy.
A conversation between myself and Arvind, inspired by Susan, demonstrates this point.
As the player's cards approach 16, and the dealer's card approaches 10, this violation appears to become more and more common.
It also becomes more and more reasonable, statistically speaking, in terms of expected return.
The difference between hitting or standing when the player has a 16 and the dealer has a 10 is almost insignificant in terms https://yournaughtystory.com/blackjack/reglas-del-juego-blackjack.html the odds of winning or losing.
What is interesting here, though, is the degree to which players favor the incorrect play.
In Indiana, a majority of players seemed to stand with a 16 against a dealer's 10.
Often they will urge other players to stand as well.
The following conversation between Susan and Arvind while riding on the shuttle bus provides the standard argument for standing with a 16 against a dealer's 10, as well as the standard argument for not doing so.
Susan is continuing to ask Arvind about how he plays in order, it seems, to assess his blackjack skill.
So it couldn't be better to stand on 16 when the dealer has a good hand or the casino would do it, too.
You have to assume the dealer has 20.
The first part of her argument states that a person should hit 16 because the dealer hits 16, and therefore it must be a good strategy since the casino has the advantage.
This part of her argument does not mesh with some of her other avowed playing strategies, however.
For example, earlier in the conversation she had said that she stands on a thirteen when the dealer has a two 12 showing.
According to her current explanation, one would expect her to hit, since the dealer always hits a 13.
On the other hand, if she did not allow herself this inconsistency in beliefs her performance would be affected for the what is soft in blackjack />The use of inconsistent strategies that apply in some contexts and not in others is common among blackjack players, and it tends to improve the quality of their play.
Also notice the second part of her argument.
But the heuristic of assuming that the dealer has a 10 underneath is a common one that players often use to decide how to play.
In line with the previous example, however, it should be noted that the common practice of using this heuristic never, in my experience, disregards context.
It's a 16 against the dealer's 20.
You have to assume that.
These two views represent fairly common perceptions among experienced players on both sides of the issue.
Susan's argument is the more commonly accepted; Arvind's is more sophisticated in terms of probabilistic reasoning, incorporating some of the issues that make hitting versus standing with a 10 against a 10 such a close call.
As mentioned earlier, however, the basic strategy calls for hitting instead of standing, the play that Susan has argued for.
Although recall that earlier Arvind said that sometimes he hits and sometimes he stands.
Statistically the difference is almost arbitrary.
Pseudo-card counting As with the basic strategy, a superficial knowledge of card counting is common, although it plays a less significant role in affecting playing strategies.
Most players β€” beginners and experienced ones β€” have heard of card counting.
Among beginners there is a common misunderstanding that this involves memorizing the specific cards that have been played out of the deck.
Many if not most long-term players realize that card counting simply involves ascribing a positive or negative point value to the cards depending on whether they are good or bad for the player.
Indeed, in my experience, most players who are relatively well-experienced know that high cards and aces remaining in the shoe are good for the player and low cards are bad.
They also know that they should hit more when there are a disproportionate number of low cards remaining and stand more when there are a disproportionate number of high cards.
At the same time, when pressed for details, even these players who call themselves card counters do not know the fundamentals, including a correct basic strategy.
For these players, card counting usually means paying attention to cards that have been dealt out of the deck and using that information to inform subsequent plays.
While these systems usually do involve a valid concern with the proportion of tens to non-tens expected to occur, they are not systematic.
Indeed, there is generally not an attempt at estimating overall relative frequencies at all.
Thus, just as players make choices according to a pseudo-basic strategy that takes into account their own two-card total and the dealer's up-card, players also use pseudo-card counting systems that are sensitive to cards removed from the shoe and the directional consequences of these cards.
Unlike actual card counting systems, however, these strategies do not change the odds to the players' favor, and in most cases players would almost certainly do better to stick to their pseudo-basic strategies.
The exception is in cases where these pseudo-basic strategies are wrong, in which case, of course, anything that leads to a change will improve their lot.
There tend to be three main pseudo-card counting strategies, all of which may or may not be used by a particular gambler.
First, and least frequently, players may attempt to estimate relative frequencies of tens to non-tens remaining in the shoe.
Thus, like actual card counters, they will be attuned to how many cards have been dealt since the previous shuffle, and they will have been watching for what appears to be a disproportionate frequency of tens or non-tens.
If they think many more non-tens have been removed than usual, they may increase their bet for the following round, take insurance if the dealer has an ace, double down with hand totals of 11 or less, and stand more often than they normally would with potentially busting hands.
This group is the most sophisticated of the pseudo-card counters.
They tend to be very experienced and serious players and they have often studied card counting at some point in the past.
Since they do not have a method for estimating actual ratios of tens to non-tens, and since they do not know what ratio would be significant for particular strategy or bet changes, they are still largely involved in guesswork.
While such players will commonly be encountered at the blackjack table, they nonetheless make up a small minority of perhaps five or 10 per cent of all people at the table or perhaps less.
Players of a second type are far more common.
Often people from the first group fall into this category as well.
While these players are also concerned with the relative frequency of tens to non-tens, they are not focused on the total number of cards dealt from the shoe.
They believe that if tens and non-tens are approximately equally represented in a deck of cards, then even small samples from the shoe should approximate this distribution.
When asked, most of these players will be fully cognizant of the fact that there are a certain number of high and low cards in the deck, blackjack return to player that when low cards are removed, this leaves a certain number behind, but they have the additional expectation that even small samples of cards from the shoe should represent the larger distribution.
This is the belief holland casino amsterdam blackjack small sample sizes should be more representative of the population from which they are drawn than is warranted.
These players do not simply believe the unrepresentative frequency of high or low cards is less usual than it in fact is.
They also believe that it will tend to be set right by the cards that immediately follow as opposed to being gradually and randomly set right through the course of the shoe, as is in fact the case.
As a consequence, members of this group see the current round of play as the most important.
Since it is easier to simply pay attention to the current round, they tend to do so.
Unlike the first group, these players generally do not use this information in making betting decisions; rather, they use it only to decide how to play their hands as well as to try to influence what cards the dealer will subsequently receive.
A third group is similar to the day, counting cards blackjack strategy thanks, and might be seen as simply a more extreme version.
For members of this group, the most recent cards are also the most diagnostic of future probabilities, but for this group this is true even if it is clear that a representative sample of high and low cards have occurred.
Thus if three tens are followed by three fives, players commonly believe a high card is due to occur, since the three low fives occurred most recently.
This corresponds to a sequential response bias and was identified by in their study of blackjack players in the Netherlands.
Even the most experienced players express a specific concern with the most recent cards, independent of relative frequency.
This is true even if the six cards are all displayed side by side face up on the table, and even if there are exactly the same number of each type of card.
Because the most recent cards are seen to be the most predictive of the cards that immediately follow, these players often prefer to sit at the final spot before the dealer, which is commonly called third base, using a see more analogy.
There they will sometimes take cards when they normally would not, or not take cards when they normally would, specifically to influence what cards the dealer will subsequently receive.
While the first of these three pseudo-card-counting systems is relatively rare, the latter two, in one form or the other, are quite common and used by a clear majority of long-term blackjack players at the Indiana casinos visited for this fieldwork.
Nonetheless, while all three systems can in some respect be seen as expressing a kind of gambler's fallacy, it should be noted that they are closely tied to the structure of blackjack and the fact that events are not independent in this particular game.
Most of these same players would not use corresponding betting strategies, increasing their bets after a series of losses or decreasing their bets after a series of wins.
And two players expressly stated after being asked that the same strategy would not work in roulette.
There are several exceptions to this however.
One example is with hitting or standing on a 16 against a dealer's 10, for which just one additional 10 in a six-deck shoe is sufficient to make standing instead of hitting the preferred play.
Furthermore, that particular hand is one in which players are most sensitive to these contextual cues, as observed earlier in the conversation with Arvind.
Since the players are selective about which hands depend on previous cards removed from the deck, the total cost to their expected return may be quite small.
Nonetheless, the net result of such strategies is almost certainly negative, assuming the only consideration is expected value.
If a player is sitting in a particular spot that receives several blackjacks, other players will ask jokingly if they can trade places.
Still, even though these practices are shared by most people at the table, it is unclear whether people generally pokerstars blackjack online they make a difference, or whether they are just going along with the fun or trying something that cannot hurt, even if there is little hope it will help.
My experience at the table suggests that any of these options can be the case, depending on the context.
In these cases, it is not at all clear that the players would refer to their beliefs as anything other than rational.
Often the players themselves seem conflicted, as the following example suggests.
I was playing blackjack with a friend and I left to go to the bathroom, and when I returned, we both played another hand and he won.
The cases in which most players seem to sincerely believe the quality of the cards can be affected all appear to involve a concern with maintaining proper card order or disrupting improper order.
Most experienced players do not like to play with inexperienced players specifically because they believe it will hurt their chances of winning.
This is a second reason many players will watch a table before joining.
They like to determine the quality of the other players at the table before risking their money.
Another important influence related to proper order concerns playing consistently.
I would have thought that it would just be random whether a change in how other people play helps you or hurts you.
He seems not to believe 1 stbb blackjack schecter sls c a card order can predictably affect one's chances of winning and losing, and one might suspect, as I did, that this indicates more prolonged experience with blackjack.
The opposite turned out to be true, however.
He later said that he did not know how to play blackjack well at all and did not like to play cards.
The floor supervisor, on the other hand, had at least a rudimentary knowledge of card counting, and he believed he knew how to play blackjack well.
Furthermore, experienced blackjack players seemed nearly uniform in their concern with proper order.
Something about the blackjack experience seems to promote a belief in the importance of proper order β€” whether or not such a belief is warranted β€” that less experienced blackjack players might not have.
Two other examples that involve concern with proper order are worth mentioning to highlight the strength of this concern.
In the first, I was playing blackjack next to a man in his mid 40s.
It's most important just to play consistent.
I interpreted her to be showing disapproval at my apparent ignorance.
If people keep changing the way they play, then that messes up the way the cards fall.
But it really depends on how the cards are falling.
Doesn't matter how you play really.
If people at the table are losing, I'll lower my bet until something changes.
Or if we're winning and then someone leaves the table or a new person comes, I'll lower my bet to see how things are going.
But it really just depends on if you're getting the right cards or not.
In the final example, I am again speaking with Susan and Arvind on the shuttle.
Good players don't like to play with beginners because they throw the cards all off.
You're playing by the book and someone plays wrong and it ruins things for the whole table.
You gotta keep the other players in mind too.
You can't just play for yourself.
It throws off the cards.
Even if there's an empty spot where no one's playing, but the cards are running well for everyone, it's not polite to join the game.
If the cards are so-so, you win, lose, win, lose, then it doesn't matter.
If the cards are bad, then you want a person to join the shoe.
When I asked the question I recognized that the issue of proper order may be quite distinct from beliefs about luck.
It seems that these players are concerned with getting or keeping the cards in a certain pattern or order whereby they are winning more than losing.
A number of factors are important, because they allow players to identify, and if necessary change, these patterns.
Playing poorly, playing inconsistently or changing the number of hands from one round to the next disrupts the patterns.
Betting systems There are a number of systems, in addition to pseudo-basic strategy and pseudo-card counting, that players use in the belief that they increase their chances of winning.
This section will focus on betting systems.
Betting systems can be distinguished from other systems in that they are not believed to alter the likelihood of winning a particular hand.
Instead they involve varying one's bet from one round to another with the goal of see more more on the winning rounds and less on the losing ones.
Betting systems thus depend on methods for predicting which hands are more likely to win, and which hands less likely β€” before the deal takes place β€” and betting more or less accordingly.
Card counting involves a betting system because part of the player's advantage comes from betting high when the odds are in the player's favor and betting low when the odds are in the casino's favor.
It also involves a playing system, since it uses the basic strategy to minimize the casino's advantage, and it deviates from the basic strategy in certain cases when justified by the count.
I will discuss six blackjack betting systems here.
They include: 1 increasing one's bet after an improbable series of losses because a win is due, the classic example of the gambler's fallacy, 2 negative progression betting systems such as the Martingale system and 3 chasing.
None of the systems are normative from an expected value point of view except to the degree that they lead to higher or lower average bets.
It is also important to note that while all of the first three systems will sometimes be used, none of them are common.
Often they are explicitly condemned whereas all of the last three systems appear to be the norm among experienced players and are taken to be signs of a good blackjack player.
This is surprising since the first three strategies are most commonly associated with gamblers' false beliefs in the literature.
As far as I am aware no previous research has identified click to see more overwhelming preference among experienced blackjack players and in my experience, gamblers more generally for increasing bets when winning as compared to increasing bets when losing.
Although the gambler's fallacy may be the best known false belief commonly held by gamblers, and it does influence violations of basic strategy, it plays almost no role in blackjack betting strategies.
Experienced players, in particular, almost universally endorse a system, described below, that may be seen as directly contrary to this fallacy.
Negative progression betting systems Another well-known betting system that involves increasing the size of one's bets when losing is the Martingale system, a member of a class of negative progression betting systems.
They are called negative progression rather than positive progression, because the bet is increased after a loss rather than after a win.
With the Martingale system, players start with a large amount of money and begin with a unit bet, doubling it each time until they win, then returning to the base bet.
Each time the player wins, he or she is ahead an additional unit bet.
Players who use this strategy reason that the odds are small that the casino will win several times in a row, and infinitely small that the casino will keep winning forever.
These two claims are true.
As long as the players have enough money to keep doubling their bet, and the casino's maximum bet is high enough, they will eventually win.
This strategy is often co-expressed with the gambler's fallacy.
So, for example, a gambler may wait for red to occur three times in roulette before placing their first minimum bet on black.
At the same time, the system itself should not be taken as an example of the gambler's fallacy.
The gambler's fallacy concerns events that have already occurred which are incorrectly judged to affect future probabilities.
Martingale systems concern series of future events for the casino that are, in fact, increasingly improbable the longer the required series.
Thus, Martingale systems, unlike common expressions of the gambler's fallacy, do usually work.
That is, players will win more often than they will lose.
The problem occurs when the player experiences the inevitable losing streak i.
In such cases, the cost to the player will be high enough on average to deplete all of the smaller wins, plus the loss of the casino's expected return on the total amount bet.
If players are looking for a way to maximize their chances of leaving the casino a winner on a particular visit and are not concerned with the high potential loss, Martingale-type systems work.
Furthermore, the success or failure of Martingale involves high variance, so that an individual's experience with it over even several months of gambling may result in more money won than lost, providing many with apparent confirmation that the system works.
Even then, if a player has had one big loss that cancelled out all winnings, she or he can often chalk this up to a failure to stick to the system.
A player can also reasonably chalk a loss up to bad luck, since one or two losses out of several wins are not, in themselves, enough to know whether it is a failure in the system or simply the downside of random variation that led to a net loss.
As a result, many novice- and intermediate-level players use Martingale-type systems, but nearly all long-time players have learned not to use it, either from personal experience or vicariously through the experience of others.
I encountered a few players who stopped using this system while still believing it probably works.
Players I have spoken with who continue to use this system do not seem to recognize this risk.
The Nepalese man, Arvind, for example, told me very confidentially and confidently that he used this system for blackjack.
But you need a lot of money.
Most players who use this system use it in roulette, not blackjack, and until this point I had never had anyone say outright that they believed blackjack could be beaten using such a system.
There are two reasons the system might be less common in blackjack.
Second, even though blackjack provides relatively learn more here players with a higher expected return than roulette, much of this benefit comes from the opportunity to split and double down, and from the three-to-two payout for a blackjack.
The probability of losing an individual round in blackjack is actually higher than in roulette, even for the perfect basic strategy player, and so the system will fail more often than in roulette.
There are several similar systems to Martingale that involve systematic increases in bets with losses and decreases with wins.
These systems are generally uncommon in blackjack, however, so they will not be discussed further.
Chasing Rather than being a betting system, the this web page chasing usually implies a loss of control.
It is the act of betting higher and higher amounts in the hopes of recouping unwanted losses.
As with Martingale, chasing works more often than not, since just one win will be enough to recoup the losses, but in the event that it does not, and the gambler continues to lose until the losses can no longer be recouped with a single bet.
The consequences can be devastating.
I did not meet any blackjack players in Indiana who recommended chasing, though I observed what appeared to be chasing a few times, and two players admitted they were doing so.
Experienced players who were not in the act of chasing universally condemned it, while many of these same gamblers admitted they occasionally lost control and did it.
Since chasing usually works, it makes sense that it would be appealing specifically after a gambler has lost more than they feel they can afford to lose.
Chasing offers a way out.
It also makes sense that after a gambler has lost even the available money with which to chase, and subsequently come to terms with that loss, that they would see chasing as the potentially devastating practice that it more info />When blackjack players use this system, it betonlinepoker to come from a belief in patterns of luck.
Nearly all experienced players increase their bets after wins and decrease them after losses, often with the explicit justification that they are hot.
Indeed, many players will not sit at a table until they have seen whether the dealer is hot or cold.
Unlike the three previous systems that involve increasing bets after losses, the belief that luck runs in identifiable streaks and can be bet on to the player's advantage, appears to be shared by a clear majority of experienced blackjack players.
Many players believe that betting high when the cards are hot and low when the cards are cold is the single most important factor to winning in blackjack.
While they accept that long-term probability favors the casino, many of these players believe they can use their knowledge of streaks to take advantage of short-term fluctuations in luck, and by doing so gain an advantage over the casino.
Positive progression betting Far more common in blackjack than Martingale and other negative progression systems are positive progression systems whereby players systematically increase their bets after wins.
Usually this involves increasing bets by some fraction of the previous bet until a loss occurs, then either returning to the base bet or reducing the bet by the same fraction that it was increased.
Often the maximum bet size depends on the total amount of money the player has won or lost during the playing session such that the player will progress jewelry com higher maximum bets the more they have won.
The systems may be more or less codified and depend more or less on intuition from one player to another.
Positive progression betting usually co-occurs with a belief that outcomes run in streaks as discussed above, and it is difficult to separate one from the other.
This betting system tends to be the behavioral expression of the belief in streaks.
Betting with the house's money Many players bet more when they are ahead overall for the day.
Experimental researchers similarly found that people tend to be more risk-seeking with money won than money earned.
It should be noted that not only are casino gamblers more risk-seeking after winning, but they tend to believe such a strategy is normative.
It's the only way you'll ever really win.
You have to bet big when you get some money from the casino.
Perhaps the reason for common violations of the basic strategy is that the players have other goals in addition to or instead of maximizing their winnings.
One question I had, then, was what other reasons patrons had for playing the game.
What were their goals?
Along with the hope of winning, there are three main goals that the game of blackjack appears to satisfy.
All three may be interdependent, though, and I was unable to clearly distinguish between them.
The first goal was simply to have a good time.
I mean, what do you do in Indiana?
And at least three others stated that they gambled for enjoyment, not because they expected to win.
A second reason, which cannot be cleanly distinguished from the first, may be the desire for social interaction.
Players did not talk about this, but the behavior at the tables and on the shuttle suggests that part of the experience of the game involves friendly interaction with other people.
Shuttle deposit blackjack us no and patrons often know each other by name and they speak about other players and drivers who are not present by name as well.
People at the table often come to the casino together or know one another from past casino experiences.
Players also frequently comment on other players' cards, complimenting them when the cards are good, sympathizing when the cards are bad, wishing one another luck, and offering advice on how to play.
Although players at some tables did not speak at all, for the most part blackjack appeared to be a friendly social experience.
The desire for fun or for social interaction notwithstanding, the hope of winning seems to be a constant characteristic of blackjack players.
A distinction should be made here between players who expect to win, and those who expect to lose but still hope to win.
It became apparent from different conversations angeles free bet blackjack los many players expected to win.
One floor supervisor said that many people played in order to make a living, although I could not tell how successful such people were or what fraction of the patrons had this in mind.
A dealer said that 99 per cent of players thought they had a system to beat the casino.
Several players also told me that they had winning systems.
In my experience, though, most players know the odds are against them and that they will probably lose.
Nonetheless, I never encountered anyone who gave me an indication that they did not at least hope to win, and conversations frequently referred to past great wins by the speaker or people who were observed to win large amounts.
While having fun and social interaction are certainly part of the experience, the hope of winning, even among gamblers who know the odds are against them, also plays an important role.
The interaction of these goals can have important repercussions and could explain a number of violations of basic strategy.
Another player explained that she never splits her tens because it makes everyone else at the table so upset, even though she sometimes likes to do it when she is playing alone.
Splitting is much more fun and twos often turn into a good hand, so why not.
Finally, it is worth noting a possible relationship between the betting systems discussed in the previous section and gambler utility.
The first three betting systems, all of which call for higher bets when losing, have unique consequences on winning experience from the latter three systems, all of which call for higher bets when winning.
Using these latter systems, players will actually leave the casino as winners less often than when using Martingale-type systems or chasing, since they will tend to bet higher amounts specifically when they are ahead, increasing the probability that they will lose all of their winnings.
At the same time, the average and maximum size of their winning sessions will be larger, since on the less common occasions when these gamblers do end their gambling sessions as winners, they were making larger than usual bets.
Finally, the average and maximum size of their losing sessions will tend to be smaller, since on the occasions when these gamblers are losing, they will lower their bet sizes, thus risking less while also reducing the probability of breaking even.
The differential structure of winning and losing experiences may play a significant role in why increasing bets blackjack return to player winning and decreasing them when losing is far more popular than the opposite set of strategies, particularly among the most experienced players.
An occasional big win, while avoiding costly large losses, may have more utility to the gambler than an occasional big loss with few if any big wins, even if the favored strategies result in fewer winning sessions and even if both sets of strategies have the same, slightly negative, expected value.
Indeed, Turner personal communication, 2003 observed that positive progression betting systems create a payout structure similar to that built into the design of slot machines, the most popular casino gambling activity of all.
Perhaps the utility of an occasional big win outweighs the cost of frequent though affordable losses, even if the objective sum of these losses over the long term is greater than the sum of the wins.
Summary of research results It should be recognized that experienced players conform well to the basic strategy, but they also make a number of choices that systematically violate it.
As such, it is worth distinguishing these folk- or pseudo-basic strategies from the actual mathematically-derived basic strategy.
The violations of basic strategy seem to involve a partial misunderstanding or ignorance of what basic strategy really means, as well as a belief in the norms at the table, which occasionally differ systematically from basic strategy.
Proficient card counters are exceedingly rare.
Nonetheless, experienced players use a number of techniques related to past cards removed from the shoe and incorporate basic tenets of card counting, though these systems probably hurt the players more than help them in terms of expected value.
Just as the folk conceptions of basic strategy might be termed pseudo-basic strategy, these folk conceptions of card counting might be termed pseudo-card counting, in order to distinguish them from the more precise mathematically-derived methods.
There are also a wide range of practices and beliefs related to the ability to influence the outcome of cards.
These sometimes include idiosyncratic methods such as carrying a lucky charm or circling one's chair at the beginning of every shoe.
More often they include practices acknowledged by the group to work, such as having a particular person cut the cards, or tapping on the table when a player gets an ace to wish them luck in getting a blackjack.
The most common practices and beliefs have to do with a concern with proper order.
Players will pay attention to how many hands are dealt at klone blackjack table, the playing strategies people are using and how well people are playing, and try to keep this all consistent if the gamblers are doing well, or change it if the gamblers are doing poorly.
They will urge others to play consistently and to play according to group norms with the explanation that to do otherwise is bad for the entire table.
Another factor affecting blackjack strategies are betting systems that use previous sequences of wins and losses to determine how to bet.
One set of strategies calls for increasing one's bets when losing and decreasing one's bets when losing.
A second set of strategies calls for increasing bets when winning and decreasing bets when losing.
Although all systems are relatively well known, the first set of systems are quite rare among experienced players except, perhaps, chasingand none of them are condoned as good strategies, whereas the second set of systems are widely practiced and condoned go here even the most experienced players.
For the most part, blackjack players seem concerned with maximizing their winnings.
However, they also have additional goals.
These include a desire to have fun or to be entertained, a desire for social interaction and unique goals related to blackjack linea juegos en the hope of winning and the subjective experience of winning that cannot be reduced to expected value.
Conclusion: Implications for research into gambling behavior and problem gambling At the beginning of the article it was noted that blackjack return to player number of researchers see gamblers' false beliefs about winning and their suboptimal strategies as an important factor in why so many people gamble and why some people become problem or pathological gamblers and others do not.
The implication is that the biased or irrational cognitions of the gambler are the source of these false beliefs and suboptimal strategies.
These claims suggest three important questions: 1 Do frequent gamblers really tend to have false beliefs about winning and suboptimal strategies for doing so?
And 3 are the false beliefs and suboptimal strategies really the consequence of biased or irrational thinking on the part of the gambler?
I will consider each of these questions with reference to the research findings.
Before delving in, however, two caveats are important.
First, gamblers are a diverse group and blackjack players are no exception.
These false beliefs likely directly contribute to their decision to gamble and to their difficulty in stopping.
Furthermore, the source of these false beliefs may often be the biased or irrational cognitions of the individual, either through the expression of traditional heuristics and biases or through motivated reasoning.
They gamble either because they have a system for winning which seems reasonable, given the available information about the activity, or because they have other reasons for gambling besides the expectation of winning money.
This discussion will focus on the group most commonly observed during the ethnographic research, and this group does not fall neatly into either of these two extremes.
Second, the quality of the data obtained during the ethnographic research does not allow me to categorically answer any of these questions, particularly the second.
I have few means by which to know whether blackjack players' false beliefs and suboptimal strategies led to their choice to play blackjack, and I have even fewer means to assess causes of problem gambling behavior that were not a category of inquiry for the study.
At the same time, the ethnographic findings have implications for all three questions, and these implications will be considered here.
Do frequent blackjack players really tend to have false beliefs about winning and suboptimal strategies for doing so?
At the same time, it should be recognized that most of these false beliefs have only a minor impact on the player's expected return.
This may be particularly true since deviations from basic strategy seem to be limited to hands for which violating basic strategy is the least costly.
Furthermore, the one set of strategies that have the largest impact on the players' expected returns β€” betting strategies that influence average bet sizes β€” have important consequences for the gambling experience that may provide utility beyond expected blackjack bodog />Thus, while blackjack players may be incorrect to believe increasing their bets after wins increases their chances of being a long-term winner, these strategies may have survived and thrived specifically because they tend to contribute to other positive features of the gambling experience.
As such, the long answer to this question may be that gamblers have both true and false beliefs and better and worse strategies, but the false beliefs and suboptimal strategies tend not to have serious negative implications and may provide benefits and safeguards about which not even the gambler is consciously aware.
Do these false beliefs and suboptimal strategies contribute to their decision to gamble and to their progression from leisure gambler to problem gambler?
This research suggests that experienced blackjack players have a rich set of strategies and beliefs, many of which have unquestionably developed in the context of the blackjack playing experience.
Their strategies and beliefs, both true and false, provide part of the structure of the blackjack playing experience and undoubtedly contribute to the utility of playing blackjack.
In part at least, the game is enjoyable because it involves learned skills that more experienced players actually use.
This is not simply the illusion of control or the illusion of skill, even if the consequences of the strategies do not improve one's chances of winning.
For example, although I studied card counting, I might nonetheless make systematic errors in keeping the count that lead me to raise my bets and to deviate from the basic strategy in cases where I should not.
If I do this frequently enough, I may perform worse than a player who simply bets the minimum and plays by the basic strategy.
Even if this is the case, my decisions are still based on a trained skill, and the application of this skill significantly contributes to my enjoyment of the game and the utility I get from playing.
Similarly, experienced blackjack players may be better than beginners at noticing patterns in outcomes and these likely influence their probability of winning during a particular gambling session because of their corresponding betting systems.
Also, they probably do apply unique skills that I, for example, do not have for deciding when to take cards or not take cards based on which cards were removed from the deck.
And all of this undoubtedly contributes to their enjoyment of blackjack and to their decision to play, just as their correct beliefs and working strategies do.
Do these strategies and beliefs contribute to problem or pathological gambling?
False beliefs and suboptimal strategies likely contribute to problem gambling in three ways.
Second, also from an impulse-control perspective, they make it more likely that the player becomes committed to the game to a point when their own best judgment and self-control, which originally may have been adequate to stop them from gambling, is not adequate any longer.
Third, to the degree that these false beliefs lead gamblers to incorrectly believe they can win, they make it more likely that gamblers will lose more than they can afford, with serious consequences.
At the same time, most of the gamblers I encountered sincerely enjoy the blackjack playing activity and seem to have developed healthy strategies for playing over an extended period without risking too much.
Specific playing strategies, while not perfect, are correct more often than not, and the endorsed betting systems seem designed to specifically ensure that players will not lose more than they can afford while still having the chance to occasionally experience a big win, which for many gamblers may be precisely what attracts them to the gambling activity.
Are false beliefs and suboptimal strategies really the consequence of biased or irrational thinking on the part of the gambler?
This, for me, is the most important question.
An implicit assumption in much gambling research is that their suboptimal strategies and false beliefs are consequences of shortcomings in the reasoning processes of the individual; correct their biased and irrational cognitions and the problem will be solved, this view suggests.
The current research suggests that the false beliefs are, to an important extent, the consequence, not the cause, of gambling activity.
The most experienced players have a rich set of strategies and beliefs that they appear to have learned during the gambling experience.
In my view, these strategies and beliefs are as rational and unbiased as other strategies and beliefs commonly used during decisions made throughout much of a healthy individual's life.
That is, they are neither rational and unbiased, nor irrational and biased.
Rather they involve the best judgments available to the players article source their gambling experiences and the available information, with occasional motivated reasoning mixed in for good measure.
It was not a matter of unbiased or rational cognition any more than it was a matter of biased or irrational cognition that led me here the belief that I could make good money counting cards in blackjack, or to the subsequent belief that I could not.
Nor is it a matter of unbiased or rational cognition that led me to the conclusion that these players do not improve their expected return by increasing their bets after a win, or that led them to their conclusion that they can.
Rather, these beliefs depend importantly on complex structural features of the environment within which they and I developed our strategies and beliefs.
These include not just the physical structures, but also the information available, the belief systems of other members of the community and the complex experiential feedback given the environmental structure and dynamics.
I have no empirical evidence that the cards live dealer blackjack betonline not get hot or cold in ways that are predictive of future outcomes.
I accept that they do not because of my training and experience outside the gambling domain, just as the gamblers accept that they do because of their training and experience inside the gambling domain.
I have never been able to convince an experienced blackjack player who holds these beliefs that they are wrong and I have tried several timesbut in my view this is not because they are being irrational.
Indeed, they can often provide better empirical evidence and rational arguments than I can.
I am sometimes forced to admit that I take it on faith that hot and cold streaks, beyond the unpredictable expectations of random variation, do not occur.
The implication here is that the persistence of erroneous beliefs held by gamblers may depend more on characteristics of the gambling environment than it does on the irrational or biased quality of the gamblers' reasoning.
Indeed, once the structure and dynamics of the gambling environment are taken into account, many of the strategies and beliefs that originally seem biased or irrational may be seen to be inseparable from the gambling context, including its sociocultural context, and to blackjack return to player both rationally and empirically justified.
With an advantage of one or two per cent, even skilled card-counters will usually end up significantly down blackjack rules 888 some point during their playing period just due to normal random variation.
Among mathematicians interested in gambling, the study of risk management, or the proportion of one's bankroll that blackjack return to player be risked given a particular advantage and a particular variance, is something of a sub-field in its own right.
The optimum strategy in blackjack.
Journal of the American Statistical Association, 51, 429-439.
Arguments for self-controlled gambling as an alternative to abstention.
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Gambling: A Review of the Literature.
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Gambling Behavior and Problem Gambling.
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Blackjack Basic Strategy Calculator Version 5.
The hot hand in basketball: On the misperception of random sequences.
Cognitive Psychology, 17, 295-314.
Performance gaps between U.
Strategies for the management of luck and action in an urban poker parlor.
Urban Life, 6 4475-488.
Berkeley: University of California Press.
American Journal of Sociology, 73 3316-330.
Statistical Blackjack Analyzer Version 5.
Judgment Under Uncertainty: Heuristics and Biases.
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
On the psychology of playing blackjack: Normative and descriptive considerations with implications for decision theory.
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Cognitive processes associated with gambling behaviour.
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Causes of pathological gambling.
Reno, NV: Institute for the Study of Gambling and Commercial Gaming.
The illusion of control.
Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 32, 311-328.
The Chase: Career of the Compulsive Gambler.
Cambridge, MA: Schenkman Blackjack technical java />Pathological gambling: A review of the literature.
Journal of Gambling Studies, 7 15-40.
The stakes get higher.
Chance and skill: A study of roulette.
Playing Blackjack as a Business.
Secaucus, NJ: Lyle Stuart.
New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.
Gambling with the house money and trying to break even: The effects of prior outcomes on risky choice.
Management Science, 36 6643-660.
Doubling revisited: The mathematical and psychological effect of betting strategy.
Manuscript in preparation for publication.
Judgment under uncertainty: Heuristics and biases.
Hollywood, CA: Gambling Times.
Gambling and Problem Gambling in Nevada.
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Generation of random sequences by human subjects: A critical survey of the literature.
Psychological Bulletin, 77, 65-72.
Paradoxes of Gambling Behavior.
Hillsdale, NY: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Chance and luck are not the same.
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Gambling in Australia pp.
The Psychology of Gambling.
Gambling: An Attempt at an Integration.
It is often referred to as playing by the book.
It depends on the make up of both the player's cards and the dealer' s up-card, and it varies slightly depending on the particular blackjack rules in one casino or another.
It beats all other types of 21 i.
If the player gets a blackjack the casino pays the player three to two.
If both the player and the dealer bust, the player still loses.
This is the only tie in which the player loses and is the source of the casino's advantage in blackjack.
That is, they are hand totals from 12 to 16.
When the dealer has a two through six showing, these hands are also commonly called busting hands, since it is often assumed that the dealer has a 10-value hole card and these are in fact the up-cards for which the dealer is most likely to bust.
Card-counting systems usually require the player to 1 assign plus and minus values to low and high cards, respectively; 2 add these values as the cards are removed from play; 3 normalize this sum based on the number of cards remaining to be dealt; and 4 adjust playing and betting decisions according to the this normalized number.
Under ideal circumstances, using such systems can give the player an advantage over the casino.
Players win or lose depending on how their cards perform against the dealer's cards.
The dealer must play according to predetermined rules set by the casino that do not depend on the players' hands.
Usually these rules require the dealer to hit with 16 or less and to stand with 17 or more, although hitting with a soft 17 is also common.
In turn they get exactly one additional card.
Players have the option to do this after the deal, but only with their initial two cards or with the new two-card hand created after splitting.
This is the first person to play after the deal.
Third base refers to the player closest to the dealer's right.
This is the last person to play before the dealer.
If the ace can be used as either an 11 or a one, this is called a soft hand.
For example, if the player or dealer has an ace and a five this is referred to as a soft 16 not a soft six.
Players can hit this hand without risk, since even receiving a 10 would only make the hand a hard 16.
Players tap their fingers or move their hands toward themselves to indicate that they want to hit.
Players do not get to see this card until after they have finished making their play choices.
The dealer then looks at his or her hole card.
If there is a 10-value card, thus giving the dealer a blackjack, the insurance bet pays two to one, thus covering the initial bet.
If the player has a blackjack when the dealer has an ace up, the player has the option to take even money.
That is, the player can win exactly the amount of their original bet, before the dealer checks his or her hole card for a blackjack.
This compares to not taking even money and either winning three to two for the blackjack, or pushing and winning nothing if the dealer ends up having a blackjack.
Taking even money turns out to be monetarily identical to taking insurance.
Both plays have a negative expected return.
The inside of this oval is known as the pit.
Pit bosses are the highest level of manager within a pit.
Floor supervisors are similar to pit bosses except that their domain is smaller.
They are responsible for supervising anywhere from one to four tables depending on the game and the time of day, whereas the pit boss is responsible for the entire pit.
The player neither wins nor loses.
The dealer draws cards from the shoe to deal to the players.
Blackjack games use from one to eight decks.
One or two deck games do not use a shoe; four, six, and eight deck games do.
Players can split the same card up to three times in a single hand thus playing up to four separate hands.
Players can only split aces once, and they are not allowed to hit after each ace is made into a two-card hand.
If either or both of the split aces get tens, they are not treated as blackjacks but instead as standard twenty-ones.
That is, they lose to a dealer blackjack, push to a dealer's 21, and only payout one to one, rather than three to two.
In other words, standing involves the choice to stop taking additional cards.
Players signal this by holding their hand flesh and blood, not cards horizontally above their cards and waving it back and forth.
Copyright Β© 2019 Centre for Addiction and Mental Health Editor-in-chief: Nigel E.

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Blackjack Surrender Rules, House Edge & Basic Strategy
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Blackjack playing strategies and beliefs: A view from the field | Bennis | Journal of Gambling Issues
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Blackjack return to player such case, they get half their bet back.
This is actually a quite advantageous option as it decreases the house edge with around 0.
Below you can see a quick overview of the rules of the game.
Only late surrender allowed.
Where to Play Blackjack Surrender?
Rules of the Game Your goal in Blackjack Surrender, as in any other blackjack game, blackjack return to player to have a better hand than the dealer.
That means having a higher hand total without going over 21.
If you go over 21, you lose your bet.
All the cards count as their natural numbers, all face cards count as 10 and the ace counts as 1 or 11, whichever is more suitable for the player.
The Playtech version of the game is played on a virtual table where there are five betting boxes, given that you can play up to 5 hands at a time.
As you can see in the screenshot below, the table also features information about the rules of the game.
As in most blackjack variations, here a natural blackjack an ace and a 10-valued card pays 3 to 2, insurance pays 2 to 1 and the dealer stands on 17, including on a soft 17 an ace and a 6.
You have several options to choose from.
If you surrender your hand before your turn is over you will receive half your bet back and thus cut your loss by 50%.
If they stand, then whoever has the higher hand please click for source wins.
The first allows you to surrender a weak hand in exchange for half of blackjack return to player bet only after the dealer has peeked for blackjack, while the second allows you to do that even before the dealer peeks.
House Edge β€” What Are Your Odds?
This means that, real blackjack the exception of Blackjack Switch and Pontoon, Blackjack Surrender is the blackjack variation with the lowest house edge β€” 0.
Blackjack Surrender Strategy Chart In order to achieve the best theoretical return-to-player blackjack return to player when you play Blackjack Surrender, you need to follow the strategy illustrated below.
Still, with optimal strategy there will be a house edge of 0.
Of course, you can combine this strategy with a progressive betting strategy, like Martingale or Fibonacci, but if you do so you increase your chances of busting before you can wager your bonus.
Blackjack Switch Strategy Chart Bonus Offers Suitable for Playing Blackjack Surrender As I already mentioned, picking a nice bonus to play Blackjack Surrender with can decrease and even turn around the house edge in your advantage.
As you can see in the table above, the wagering contribution of Blackjack Surrender is set at 20% at all the above-mentioned casinos, except for Ladbrokes where it is 5%.
This means that if you, say, bet Β£100 on this game, only Β£20 will be considered for the clearing of the bonus.
Casinos set this rule because blackjack is to a great extent a game of strategy and players can wager their bonuses way too easily on it, as opposed to on other casino games based purely on luck, such as slots and scratch cards.
In fact, the wagering contribution of blackjack surrender is quite high.
But anyways, go here best bonus you blackjack return to player claim for playing this game is the one offered by William Hill.
And the right bonus, in this case, is the one offered by William Hill because of its favourable conditions.

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How to Play Blackjack: Tips and Guidelines | HowStuffWorks
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blackjack return to player